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Full text of "Richard Frotscher's almanac and garden manual for the southern states : 1890"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices 




NewOrleans,La. 



I^ IB FC .... 





^^^ 



ALMAITAC 



AND- 



^.^^^^^^E^:^ 



"-^-^-i^^i^^r^ 



dcaltute, 



ute. i 




SOUTHERN STATES, 



lESIGNED:: 



To GIVE Directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables, 
AS practiced in the south. 



Entered according to Act of Congress by Kichabd Fkothcheb, in the Office of the Librarian at 
Washington, in the year 1877. 



Warehouse: 
15 & 17 DU MAINE STREET, 

NEAR THE FRENCH MARKET, 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

^EO. MULLEE, PRIKTER. 50 BIESTTjl'S'lE STREET. 
1890. 



INTRODUCTION 



In presenting to my friends and patrons the 

Thirteenth Annual Edition of my Almanac and Garden Manual, 

I do so in stating that it is a plain work like its predecessors, intended 
to give short but comprehensive instructions in regard to the cultivation 
of vegetables and flowers as practiced here in the South. For the looks 
of my work, it cannot be compared with the elaborated issues of some of 
my Northern competitors, which are full of colored plates, and with gilded 
covers, resembling more a series of ^^ Mother Huhhard^^ than an instruc- 
tion book on gardening; but I flatter myself, that it is the most useful 
for this section. An old proverb says, ''Not all is gold, which glitters." 

The demand for my Almanac has increased from year to year, and 
I am now compelled to publish twice as many as when I sent out the 
first issue ; although I have been careful in the distribution of this work 
to place it in the hands of those who benefit by its instructions. 

The raising and shipping of vegetables from the South to the West- 
ern and Northern points has increased to such an extent, that it has be- 
come quite an item of Southern industries, which requires the attention 
and study of seedsmen to assist those who are engaged in this particular 
branch by giving them the best informations in regard to selecting seeds 
suited to our section. 

I may state here that it is a quarter of a century since I went into the 
Seed business, on a small scale, and unknown; by working for the inter- 
est of my customers, and by fair and honest dealing, I have succeeded in 
building up the largest Seed establishment in the South. 

Hoping a continuance of the favors of my patrons, which will be 
duly appreciated, 

I remain. 

Yours truly, 

RICHABD FROTSCHER. 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in packages not ex- 
ceeding four pounds, at eight cts. per pound, or one cent for two ounces, or fraction 
thereof. On seeds ordered in papers or by the ounce I prepay the postage, except 
on peas, beans and corn. This refers to large sized papers which are sold at one 
dollar per dozen. When ordered by the pound eig^lit cents per pound postage has 
to be added to the price of the seeds; to peas, beans and corn, fifteen cts. per 
quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and every precaution 
taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety. Purchasers living at 
any place where my seeds are not sold, are requested to write to me to obtain their 
supplies. This will be more profitable than to buy from country stores where seeds 
left on commission, are often kept till all power of germinatioij is destroyed. As 
-seed merchants, who give their goods out on commission, rarely collect what is not 
sold, oftener than once every twelve months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, 
Carrots, and many other seeds will either not sprout at all or grow imperfectly if 
kept over a summer in the South— to buy and plant such, is but monej', time and 
labor wasted. 

Here in our climate, where we plant garden- vegetables as freely in autumn as in 
spring, and where often the seeds have to be put in the ground when the weather 
is very warm, it is an indisi^en sable necessity to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements wdth my growers are made so that I receive the new crop, 
expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matured. The varieties which are not 
raised in the North, I order from Europe, and have them shipped so as to reach me 
about the beginning of August, just the time they are needed for fall planting. By 
foUowdng this plan I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted germi- 
nating qualities, while dealers, who sell on commission, have only those left from 
the winter previous. 

On the receipt of one dollar I will mail thirteen large size papers of seeds, put 
up the same as seeds sold by the pound. These papers can be selected from this 
Catalogue, and include four papers of either Beans or Peas, if so wanted. Or, for 
the same amount, I will mail twenty smaller papers, including four papers of 
either Peas or Beans. This is done to enable consumers to get reliable seeds in 
good size papers in places where my seeds are not sold. The papers put up by 
Northern seedsmen are so small that of some varieties they hardly contain enough 
to do any good. The low prices charged to merchants are made at the expense of 
consumers. My papers are large and worth the full value of the money paid for 
them. 

It cannot be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of vegetables, 
that most seeds kept through a summer in this climate will not grow, and that all 
who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which were addressed to 
me and contained money, were not answered, I must state that these letters never 
reached me, and, therefore, would caution my customers not to send any money 
in letters without registering same. By sending one dollar, or upwards, the cost, 
t^n cents, can be charged to me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or 
draft, but where they caonot be had, letters have to be registered, which can be 
done at any Post Office, 



FOB THE SOCTHERN STATES. 



A Few Remarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 



Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for shipping West 
has become quite an item in the neighborhood of New Orleans. We have advan- 
tages here, which are not found elsewhere, for that branch of industry. Freights 
have been reduced to all points from here, and special cars, built expressly for 
carrying green vegetables and fruit, have been put on the Railroads, We are ear- 
lier here than at any other point, and with the rich ground we have, and the large 
supply of manure to be had for the hauling only, early vegetables can be raised ^ 
very successfully. 

Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but Beans, Cucumbers, 
Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas form the bulk of shipment. For Beans, the 
Dwarf Wax, Improved Valentine and "Best of All" are principally planted for ship- 
ping purposes; the latter carry well and find ready sale. The Wax varieties do 
well in a dry season, but in a wet one they are apt to spot, which makes them un- 
fit for shipping. If they have had a good season to grow, so they arrive in good or- 
der at destination, they will sell higher than any other variety. The Crease Back— 
a Pole Bean introduced here by me -is well adapted for shipping. It is very early 
and will follow the Dwarf Beans closely in maturing. Thousands of bushels of 
green pods are shipped from here to the Western markets. They are generally sten- 
ciled "Mobile Beans,,' which name is wrongly applied. Very few of this variety 
are planted at that place. 

In the way of Cucumbers, the Improved White Spine and New Orleans Market 
are the best varieties, as they bear abundantly, keep their color better, and are su- 
perior for shipping to any other. I have been supplying the largest growers in this 
vicinity in that line with seed, the stock of which cannot be surpassed in quality. 
Of Beets only the dark red Blood Turnip or the Egyptian should be planted for 
shipping purposes. The Egyptian is a very quick growing variety, and should not 
be sown quite so early as the Blood Turnip, which ought to be sown in September 
and October ; for the former variety, January is time enough. ' 

For Tomatoes, the Extra Early Dwarf comes in bearing first, but should be 
planted only::for the first crop, as when large varieties come in the market, the 
former do not sell as well. Great improvements have been made of late years in 
Tomatoes; the varieties raised and introduced by Livingston's Sons are perfect, 
and hardly any improvement can be made on such varieties as the Paragon, 
Favorite, Acme and Beauty. New Orleans is not a good point to ship Tomatoes 
from as they hardly ever arrive at destination in good condition. Along the Jack- 
son R. E., where the land is more sandy, a better article is raised for shipping. 
Lettuce is shipped quite extensively ; the Improved Passion is used principally for 
that purpose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities, but the former are very 
uncertain in regard to prices. Owing to the unfavorable weather last winter and 
spring, the season has not been good for raisers and shippers of vegetables. The 
crop of Winter Cabbage was almost a failure. The storm on the 19th and 20th of 
August destroyed the plants which were almost large enough to be set out. Seed 
had to be sown again, which did not grow well owing to the continued hard rains 
in September. Plants could not be planted till late, and owing to the mild winter, 
cabbage did not head well. There was not a fourth of an average crop ; this had 
to be sold at very low prices. Cabbage came here till January from the West, the 
open winter there permitted growers to ship later than usual. This cabbage wag 
sold here at very low prices, sometimes hardly bringing the freight. 



EICHARD FROa?SCaER'S ALMaNAO AND GARDEN MANUAL 



The Spring crop also did not do so well ; January, February and part of March 
were very wet, which prevented cultivators to work the growing crops. After the 
rainy spell we had an exceedingly dry one, which was not favorable towards 
developing the size of cabbage. Many thousand crates of cabbage did not pay for 
freight at destination. Brunswick and Early Summer are the two principal varie- 
ties shipped from here. 

The surest plan is to sow the seed in cold frames in November, say from the 
middle to the twentieth, to have them for transplantinjg in January. 

Beets and Cucumbers paid well, that is, the latter raised in frames, and open 
ground. Peas did very poorly owing to the very heavy rains during March But 
what was shipped brought good prices. Beans came In too late, and very few of 
them paid ; there came too many from along the line of the Jackson Kail Road to 
Chicago at the same time. Wax Beans arrived in good order, shipped from here 
owing to the dry weather in April ; they also done finely from the line of the L. & N. 
R. E., between here and Mobile. The Wax Beans, when in good order, always 
bring higher prices than green podded varieties. 

The potatoes brought to the market early, realized good prices ; most of them 
were shipped to different points from here ; but owing to their poor quality, having 
been mostly dug before properly matured, the prices fell so rapidly, that our main 
crop sold at very low prices. The principal reason of it was, that our crop shipped 
North and West came in competition with potatoes raised farther West, Mississippi 
and Tennessee. Our late potatoes were not large owing to the dry weather in late 
Spring. The yield of potatoes was very different, one from the other ; some hardly 
returned the seeds, while others got from 15 to 20 barrels for one planted, from the 
same lot of seed potatoes. The crop of Onions was very large but sold low. Shipped 
North and West they sold at ruinous prices to the shipper, in many instances 
bringing less than they were bought for here. The quality was excellent and 
kept well all Summer ; in the month of October, I had some which were as sound 
and firm as at the time they were dug (latter i>art of xlpril). The Musk Melon crop 
was large and of excellent quality ; it paid well. Tomatoes also paid well. 

Gardeners and others who contemplate raising vegetables for shipping, are 
invited to give me a call. From the fact that all staple articles are raised for me 
by contract, in such sections best suited to mature the varieties we need for our 
climpote, and the interest I take in the'seed business, coupled with a thorough knowl- 
edge of same, enables me to assist in making selections of seeds for the purpose. 
The interest of my customers and mine are identical. My stock is the best selected 
and largest in the South. 



I receive a good many letters which ate plainly enough written, 
except the signature. To insure prompt filling of orders, I ask all cus- 
tomers and others writing to me, to write their names plainly; at the 
same time, never fail to give the name of the nearest Post Office. Also, 
write out the order in columns, not in the body of the letter. Some let- 
ters came in without any signature ; when the Post Office was properly 
given, I returned the letter to the Post Master of tliat place, and in some 
instances have traced up the writer in that way. 



FOE *h£ southErK states. 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the JLatitude of tl:\e Soutl\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon ^ 6d. 

Last Quarter * lid. 

New Moon 20d. 

First Quarter ■27d. 



2h. 


16m. 


Morning. 


Ih. 


12m. 


Morning. 


6h. 


29m. 


Evening. 


2h. 


56m. 


Evening. 



DAY 

or 
Month and Week. 


Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. &8. 

h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 
2 
3 
4 


Wednesday 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 


7 9 

7 8 
7 8 
7 8 


4 51 
4 52 
4 52 
4 52 


2 20 

3 17 

4 2 
4 59 


New Year. 

Gen. Wolf born, Westerham, Kent, 1727. 
Eliot Warburton, Hist. Novelist, died 1852. 
Introd'n of Silk manuf 'es into Europe, 1536. 



1) Sunday after New Year. 



Matth. 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 46m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



7 7 


4 53 


5 50 


7 7 


4 53 


rises 


7 7 


4 53 


5 59 


7 6 


4 54 


6 48 


7 


4 54 


7 39 


7 6 


4 54 


8 27 


7 5 


4 55 


9 25 



Vigil of Epiphany. 

Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 

Kobert Nicoll, poet, born, 1814. 

Battle of N. 0„ 1815 & Inaug. Gov.NichoUs, '77 

Car. Lucr. Herschel, Astronomer, died, 1848. 

1st Steamboat, New Orleans from Pittsburg, 

First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. [1812. 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 50m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



7 5 


4 55 


10 26 


7 4 


4 56 


11 21 


7 3 


4 57 


morn 


7 3 


4 57 


12 1 


7 2 


4 58 


1 17 


7 1 


4 59 


2 29 


7 


5 


3 42 



St. Arcadius, Martyr. 
G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 
"Great Frost" in England, began 1205. 
Thomas Crofton Croker, born, 1798. 
Edmond Spencer, Poet, died, 1599. 
Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 
Festival of St. Peter's Chair at Eome. 



1690 



3) 2nd Sunday after Epiphany. 



John 2. 



Day's length, lOh. 00m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



7 


5 


4 38 


6 59 


5 1 


sets. 


6 58 


5 2 


6 17 


6 58 


5 2 


7 30 


6 57 


5 3 


8 43 


6 56 


5 4 


9 52 


6 56 


5 4 


10 59 



James Watt, born, 1736. 
Coldest day in the century, 1838. 
St. Agnes, Virgin Martyr, 304. 
Francis Bacon, born 1561. 
Thanksgiving for victory of 8th, 
Frederick the Great, born, 1712. 
St. Paul's Day. 



1815. 



4) 3rd Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 8. 



Day's length, lOh. 10m. 



26 


Sunday 


6 55 


5 5 


11 59 


Louisiana seceded, 1861. 


27 


Monday 


6 54 


5 6 


morn 


Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 


28 


Tuesday 


6 53 


5 7 


12 12 


Henry VIII, died, 1547. 


29 


Wednesday 


6 52 


5 8 


1 8 


Emanuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688-89. 


30 


Thursday 


6 51 


5 9 


2 10 


King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 


31 1 Friday 

! 


6 50 


5 10 


3 9 


Ben. Johnston, born, 1574. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650.— January 22., Kosh Chodesh Shebat. 



IIIOHARD PBOTSOaER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY 



•28 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of t)r\e Southern States. 



MOON\^ PHAi)ES. 

Full Moon 4d. 

Last Quarter l'2d. 

New Moon 19d. 

First Quarter 26d. 



7h. 53m. Evening, 

Ih. 31m. Afternoon. 

511. 7m. Morning. 

8h. 42m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 


Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

li. m. 


Moon 
r. & 8. 

h m. 


c;h[rokol.ogy 

— OP— 

i Mr OUT 1 ,\ T f. r/i.\/\. 


1 j Saturdrty 6 49 5 11 | 


4 1 1 Washington elected Pres't. 1789. 


5) Septuagesima Sunday. 


Matth. 20. Day's length, lOh. 22m. 



Sunday 


6 49 


Monday 


6 48 


Tuesday 


6 47 


Wednesday 


6 46 


Thur.sday 


6 45 


Friday 


6 44 


Saturday 


6 43 



4 48 


5 50 


rises 


6 31 


7 29 


8 30 


9 27 



Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Candle- 
Henry Grom :\'ell, boiTi, 1(327. [mas Day. 
Delegates from Conf. States meet at Mont- 
Ole Bull, born, 1810. [go'mery, 1861. 

Charles II. King of England, died, 1865. 
Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587. 



6) Sexagesima Sunday. 



Luke 



Day's length, lOh. 36m. 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 42 


5 18 


10 27 


6 41 


5 19 


11 28 


6 40 


5 20 


morn 


6 39 


5 21 


12 1 


6 38 


5 22 


12 39 


6 37 


5 23 


1 30 


6 36 


5 24 


2 29 



David Eezzio, murdered, 1565-66. 

Riot at Oxford. 1354. 

Mary, Queen of Kngland, born, 1516. 

Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 

St. Gregory II, Pope, 631. 

St. Valentine's Day. 

Galilei Galileo, Astronomer,born, 1564. 



f) Quinquagesima Sunday. 



Luke 18. 



Day's length, lOh. 50ra, 



IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 35 


5 25 


3 37 


6 34 


5 26 


4 40 


6 33 


5 27 


5 47 


6 32 


5 28 


sets 


6 31 


5 29 


6 35 


6 30 


5 30 


7 36 


6 29 


5 31 


8 37 



Dr. Kane, Am. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 

Columbia, S. C. burned, 1865. 

Mardi Gras in New Orleans, 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died, 1806, 

U. Gaghan «&T. Connor, felon poets, hanged 

Pierre du Bose, born, 1623. [1749. 

George Washington, born, 1732. 



8) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Dav's length, llh. 04m. 



24 
25 
26 
27 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 



6 28 


5 32 


9 40 


6 27 


5 33 


10 42 


6 26 


5 34 


11 45 


6 25 


5 35 


morn 


6 24 


5 36 


12 35 


6 23 


5 37 


1 33 



Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 
St. Matthias, Apostle. 
Dr. Bucan, born, 1729. 
Thomas Moore, poet, died, 1852. 
Longfellow, born, 1807. [1447. 

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered, 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650. -February 15, Shekolim ; 20 and 21, 
Rosh Chodesh xVdar. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



3d Month. 



MARCH 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S 



Full Moon . . 
Last Quarter 
New Moon 
First Quarter 



PHASES. 

6d. 

... 13d. 

20d. 

28d. 



Ih. 27m. Afternoon, 

lOh. 44m. Evening. 

3h. 41m. Evening'. 

4li. 12m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 


Sun 
rises. 

h m 


Sun 

sets 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. & 8. 

h. m. 


CHI50N0I.0GY 

— OF— 

tia Four Ayr e rt:N ts. 


1 


SHlnrday | 6 22 


5 38 1 2 34 


First No. of the Spectator published, 1711. 



d) 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. ir>. 



Dav's lenyth, llh. 18 n. 



Sunday 

Moudiiy 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thnrsilay 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 21 


5 39 


3 32 


G 20 


5 40 


4 26 


6 18 


5 42 


5 17 


(5 17 


5 43 


G 7 


G 16 


5 44 


rises 


6 15 


5 45 


7 2 


6 14 


5 46 


8 7 



Territory of Dakota organized, 18G1. 

Edmond Waller, Poet, born, 1G05. 

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861. 

First Locomotive run througii Brit, tube, '30. 

Great financial excitement, 1863. 

Blanchard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 

King William III, of England, died, 1702. 



10) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's lengtli, llh. 31m. 



9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 13 


5 47 


9 3 


6 11 


5 49 


10 11 


6 10 


5 50 


11 19 


6 9 


5 51 


morn 


6 8 


5 52 


12 6 


6 7 


5 53 


1 1 


6 G 


5 54 


1 55 



Y/illiam Cobbett born, 1762. 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 

First daily paper, "Daily Courant." Br. 1702. 

St. Gregory tlie Great, Pope, 604. 

Disc'ry of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 1781. 

Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. 

Julius Csesar, assassinated, B. C, 44, 



11) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, llh. 50m. 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



G 5 


5 55 


2 46 


6 3 


5 57 


3 38 


6 2 


5 58 


4 33 


6 1 


5 59 


5 32 


6 


6 


sets 


5 59 


6 1 


6 50 


5 58 


G 2 


7 42 



1823. 



Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures 

St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. 

Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 

St. Joseph's day. 

Vesta discovered, 1807. 

Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 

J. W. von Goethe, Germ. Poet, died, 1832. 



13) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 8. 



Day's length, 12h. 06m.. 



23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 57 


6 3 


8 36 


5 56 


6 4 


9 27 


5 54 


6 6 


10 20 


5 53 


6 7 


11 10 


5 52 


G 8 


11 49 


5 51 


6 9 


morn 


5 50 


6 10 


12 46 



Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, died, 1369. 

Mahomet II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 

Vera Cruz captured, 1847. 

Planet Pallas, discovered, 1802. 

Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 



13) Palm Sunday 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 12h. 22m. 



30 
31 



Sunday 

Mondav 



5 49 
5 48 



6 11 

6 12 



1 39 

2 44 



Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. -5650.— March 1, Parshot Sochor; 6, Purim ; 
22, Eosh Chodesh Nissan ; 33, Parshot Hashodesh ; 29, Sabbath Hagodol.' 



lo 



BICHARD FROfSCHER^S ALMANAC AND GAR])EN MANUAL 



4th Month. 



APRIL. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tlc\e Soutt\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 5d. 

Last Quarter 12d. 

New Moon 19d. 

First Quarter . . -. 26d. 



4h. im. Morning. 

5h. 33m. Morning. 

4h. 4om. Morning. 

ilh. 31m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 



Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & s. 


11. m. 


h. m. 


li. ni. 



CHROi«OIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 47 


6 13 


3 26 


5 46 


6 14 


4 4 


5 45 


6 15 


4 48 


5 44 


6 16 


5 21 


5 43 


6 17 


rises 



Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 
JeiTerson, born, 1743. 
Washington Irving, born, 1783. 
Good Friday. 
St. Irgernach, of Ireland, 550. 



14) Easter Sunday. 



Mark. 16. 



Day's length, 12h. 36m. 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturdav 



5 42 


6 18 


7 45 


5 41 


6 19 


8 40 


5 40 


6 20 


9 26 


5 39 


6 21 


10 21 


5 38 


6 22 


11 16 


5 37 


6 23 


morn 


5 36 


6 24 


12 35 



Easter Sunday. 

St. Francis Xavler, Missionary, born, 1506. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 

Gen. E. E. Lee surrendered 1865. 

St. Eademus, Abbot Maityr, 376. 

Geo. Canning, born, 1770. JSumter, 

First gun of Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 



15) 1st Sunday after Easter. 



John 20. 



Day's length, 12h. 50m. 



13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 



Sunday 


5 35 


6 25 


1 34 


Monday 


5 34 


6 26 


2 26 


Tuesday 


5 33 


6 27 


3 15 


Wednesday 


5 32 


28 


3 55 


Thursday 


5 31 


6 29 


4 55 


Friday 


5 30 


6 30 


5 40 


Saturday 


5 29 


6 31 


sets 



Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859. 

Lincoln assassinated, 1865. 

Geo. Calvert. Lord Baltimore, died, 1632. 

Battle of CuUoden, 1746. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 

Shakespeare born, 1564. 

Battle of Lexington, 1775. 



16) 2d Sunday after Easter. 



John 10. 



Day's length, 13h. 04m. 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 28 


6 32 


7 11 


5 27 


6 33 


8 14 


5 26 


6 34 


9 19 


5 25 


6 35 


10 20 


5 24 


6 36 


11 22 


5 23 


6 37 


morn 


5 22 


6 38 


12 38 



E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed, 1534. 

Confederate victory at Plvmouth, N. C, 1863. 

Madam De Stael, born 1766. 

Shakespeare died, 1616, 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 

St. Mark's Day. 

David Hume, born, 1711, 



IT) 3d Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 18m. 



27 
28 
29 
30 



Sunday 

Sloaday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 



5 21 


6 39 


1 20 


5 20 


6 40 


1 56 


5 18 


6 42 


2 27 


5 17 


6 43 


2 50 



Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 1794. 
Monroe, born, 1758. 

King Edward lY, of England, born, 1441. 
Louisiana purchased from France by U. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650. — April 5. and 6., First days of Pessach. 
11. and 12., Last days of Pessach. 20. and 21., Eosh Chodesh lyar. 



I^OU TfiE SOtlTHERN Sl^ATfiS. 



11 



5th Month. 



MAY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the So utJ:\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon < • • 4d. 

Last Quarter lid. 

New Moon 18d. 

First Quarter 26d. 



3h. 4:8m. Evening. 

lOh. 4:4m. Morning. 

2h. 58m. Afternoon. 

5h. 13m. Evenin.i?. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 


Sun 

rises. 

h. m 


Sun 
sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 

r. & s. 

h. m. 


CHRONOIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT JE VENTS. 


1 
2 
3 


Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 


5 16 
5 15 
5 14 


6 44 
6 45 
6 46 


3 31 

4 24 
4 59 


St. Philip and St. James, Ai)ostles. 

William Camden, born, 1551. 

Discovery of the Holy Cross, by St. Helena. 


1§) 4th Sunday after Easter. John. 16. Day's length, 13)i. 32m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 14 


6 46 


rises 


5 13 


6 47 


7 58 


5 12 


6 48 


9 15 


5 11 


6 49 


10 24 


5 10 


6 50 


11 16 


5 10 


6 50 


morn 


5 9 


6 51 


12 39 



Dr. Isaac Barrow, Eng. divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 

Humboldt, died, 1859. 

St. Benedict II, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863. 

Battle of Spottsylvania, 1864, 

Pacific Bailroad finished, 1869. 



19) 5th Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 44m. 



11 


Sunday 


5 8 


6 52 


1 27 


Marjame Eicamire, died, 1849. 


12 


Monday 


5 7 


6 53 


1 57 


St. Paucras, Martvi*, 304. 


13 


Tuesday 


5 6 


6 54 


2 31 


Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 


14 


Wednesday 


5 5 


6 55 


3 1 


Battle of Crown Point, 1575. 


15 


Thursday 


5 5 


6 55 


3 40 


Ascension Day. 


16 


Friday 


5 4 


6 56 


4 10 


Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 


17 


Saturday 


5 3 


6 57 


4 40 


J. Jav, died, 1829. 



20) 6th Sunday after Easter. 



John 15. 



Day's length, 13h. 56m. 



18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 2 


6 58 


sets 


5 2 


6 58 


8 


5 1 


6 59 


8 57 


5 1 


6 59 


9 55 


5 


7 


10 54 


4 59 


7 1 


11 28 


4 58 


7 2 


morn 



Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 

St. Dunstan. Archbishop of Canterbury, 988. 

Hawthorn, died, 1864. 

Columbus, died, 1506. 

Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611. 

Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 

Bishop Jewell, born, 1522. 



21) Whitsunday 



John 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 04m. 



25 


Sunday 


4 58 


7 2 


12 23 


Battle of Winchester, 1864. 


26 


Monday 


4 57 


7 3 


1 3 


Fort Erie captured, 1813. 


27 


Tuesday 


4 57 


7 3 


1 33 


Dante, poet, born, 1265. 


28 


Wednesday 


4 56 


7 4 


2 3 


Noah Webster, died, 1843. 


29 


Thursday 


4 56 


7 4 


2 36 


Paris burned, 1871. 


30 


Friday 


4 55 


7 5 


3 8 


Peter the Great of Russia born, 1672. 


31 


Saturday 


4 55 


7 5 


3 38 


Joan of Arc burned, 1431. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650.— May 8., Lag Beomer. 20., Rosh Chodesh Sivau. 

25. and 26., Shebuoth. 



12 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMaNAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



6tli Month. 



JUNE 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tlc\e Soutl:\erA States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 3d. 

Last Quarter. 9d. 

>iew Moon 17d. 

First Quarter ■ . 25d. 



Ih. 14m. Morning. 

4h. 29m. Afternoon. 

4h. 37m. Morning. 

8h. 33m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Mouth and Week 




CHROWfOLOGY 

— OF— 
JM f OJtTANl E VEN 'S. 



22 ■■ Trinity Sunday 



John 3. 



Day's length, 14h. 12m. 



Sunday 


4 54 


7 6 


4 10 


iVionday 


4 54 


7 6 


4 43 


Tuesday 


4 53 


7 7 


rises 


Wednesday 


4 53 


7 7 


8 42 


'fhursday 


4 52 


7 8 


9 41 


Friday 


4 52 


7 8 


10 40 


Saturday 


4 51 


7 9 


11 39 



Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864. 

S. A. Douglas died, 18G1. 

Lord K. Dudley marr'd A. Kobsart, 1550. 

Corpus Christi. 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenn,, 1862. 

First American Congress at New York, 1765 



23) 1st Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 16. 



Day's length, 14h. 18m. 



Sunday 

IVionday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



4 51 


7 9 


morn 


4 51 


7 9 


12 29 


4 51 


7 9 


1 9 


4 50 


7 10 


1 36 


4 50 


7 10 


2 00 


4 50 


7 10 


2 34 


4 50 


7 10 


3 3 



Emperor Nero, died, 68, Korae. 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 

Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 

Sir John Franklin, died, 1847. 

Harriet Martineau, Novelist, born, 1802. 

General Scott, born, 1786. 

St. Basil the Great, 379. 



24) 2d Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



4 50 


7 10 


3 34 


4 50 


7 10 


4 3 


4 49 


7 11 


sets 


4 49 


7 11 


8 26 


4 49 


7 11 


9 22 


4 49 


7 11 


10 16 


4 48 


7 12 


10 42 



Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I, of England, born, 1239. 

Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. 

War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 

Kearsage sunk the Alabama, 1864. 

St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 538. 

Anthony Collins, born, 1676, 



25) 3d Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 15. 



Day's length, 14h. 22m, 



22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



4 49 


7 11 


11 8 


4 49 


7 11 


11 38 


4 49 


7 11 


morn 


4 49 


7 11 


12 34 


4 50 


7 10 


1 4 


4 50 


7 10 


1 34 


4 50 


7 10 


2 2 



Napoleon I, abdicated. 1815. 
Battle of Solferino, 1859. 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 
Battle of Ban noch burn. 
Dr. Philit) Doddridge, born, 1702. 
John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843. 
Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838. 



26) 1th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



29 Sunday 

30 I Mondav 



4 50 
4 50 



7 10 2 40 St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 

7 10 1 3 10 ! Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died, 1547. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650. -June 18 and 19, Rosh Chodesh Tamuz. 



l^oii Ti^tE souxnERs: states. 



IS 



7th Month. 



JULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tl^e Southerrv States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 2d. 

Last Quarter 8d. 

New Moon 16d. 

First Quarter 24d. 

Full Moon 3]d. 



9h. 
IJh. 
6h. 
9h. 
4h. 


3m. 
23m. 
52m. 
24m. 

4m. 


Morning. 
Evening. 
Evening. 
Evening. 
Evening. 



DAY 


Svtn 


Sun 


Moon 


CHRONOLOGY 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & 8. 


— OF— 


Month and Week. 


li. m. 


li. m. 


h. m. 


IMt'OllTANT EVENTS. 


1 


Tuesday 


4 50 


7 10 


3 41 


Battle of Malvern Hill, 1862. 


2 


Wednesday 


4 51 


7 9 


rises 


Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 


3 


Thursday 


4 51 


7 9 


8 48 


Quebec founded, 1608. 


4 


Friday 


4 51 


7 9 


9 33 


Indeiendence of the United States, 1776. 


5 


Saturday 


4 51 


7 9 


10 11 


Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1^37. 



27) 5th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 15. 



Day's length, 14h. 16in. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



4 52 


7 8 


10 41 


4 52 


7 8 


11 8 


4 52 


7 8 


11 40 


4 53 


7 7 


morn 


4 53 


7 7 


12 23 


4 54 


7 G 


12 43 


4 54 


7 6 


1 21 



Th. More. Chancel, of Eng. beheaded, 1535. 

Dr. Th. Blacklock, "blind poet," died, 1791. 

John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. 

Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 

John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 

Kobt. Stevenson, engineer, etc., died, 1850. 



28) 6th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 5. 



Day's length, 14li. 10m. 



13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 



Sunday 


4 55 


7 5 


1 51 


Monday 


4 56 


7 4 


2 53 


Tuesday 


4 56 


7 4 


3 54 


Wednesday 


4 57 


7 3 


sets 


Thursday 


4 57 


7 3 


8 6 


Friday 


4 58 


7 2 


8 36 


Saturday 


4 59 


7 1 


9 11 



Pope, John III, died, 573. 

John Hunter, eminent surgeon, born, 1728. 

St. Swithin's Day. 

Great riot in New York city, 1863. 

Dog days begin. 

St. Symphorosia and 7 sons. Martyrs. 120. 

St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 



29) 7th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark. 8. 



Day's length, 14h. 02m. 



20 


Sunday 


4 59 


7 1 


9 35 


Confed. Congress at Eichmond, 1861. 




21 


Monday 


5 


7 


10 3 


Battle of Bull Kun, 1861. 




22 


Tuesday 


5 1 


6 59 


10 32 


Urania discovered, 1824. 




23 


Wednesday 


5 1 


6 59 


11 2 


First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 




24 


Thursday 


5 2 


6 58 


11 33 


Curran, born, 1750. 




25 


Friday 


5 2 


6 58 


morn 


St. James the Great. 




26 


Saturday 


5 3 


6 57 


12 15 


Flood at Pittsburg, 1874. 





30) 8th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 7. 



Day's length, 13h. 52m. 



27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Sunday 

Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 



5 4 


6 56 


12 45 


5 4 


6 56 


1 26 


5 5 


6 55 


2 22 


5 (5 


6 54 


3 19 


5 7 


6 53 


rises 



Atlantic cable laid, 1866. 
Battle before Atlanta Ga., 1864. 
Albert I. Emp. of German v, born, 1289. 
Westfield Explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 
St. Ignatius Loyola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts,— 5650. —July 18, Rosh Chodesh Ab. 27, Tisho beab. 



14: KICHAED I-ROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GAEDEN MANUAL 




8th Month. AUGUST. 


31 Days. 


Calculated for the Latitude of tl^e Soutlierrx States. 





MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 7d. 8h. 58m. Morning. 

?^'ew Moon • • ■ 15d. lOh. 59m. Morning. 

First Quarter -- 23d. 7h. 59m. Morning. 

Full Moon 29d. llh. 15m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Weet 


Sun 

rises. 

h. m. 


Sun 
sets. 

i h. m. 


Moon CHRONOLOGY 
r. & 8. _op_ 

h. m. 1 imi'OItT ANT EVENTS. 


1 Friday 

2 Saturday 


5 7 
5 8 


6 53 
6 52 1 


8 7 Harriet Lee, Novelist, died, 1851. 

8 46 Mehemed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 



31 J 9th Sunday after Trinity. 



Lul^e 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 42m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 9 


6 51 


9 16 


5 I'J 


6 50 


9 44 1 


5 11 


6 49 


10 17 


5 12 


6 48 


10 47 


5 13 


6 47 


11 15 


5 14 


6 46 


11 40 


5 15 


6 45 


morn 



Crown Point taken, 1759. 
John Banim. Irish >,ovelist, died, 1842. 
First Atlantic Cable landed, 1858. 
Transfiguration of our Lord. 
Leonidas. Spartan Hero, slain 480, B. C. 
Fr. Hutcheson. Moral Phil., born, 1694. 
Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 



32) 10th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 19. 



Day's length, 13h. 28m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 16 


644 


12 47 1 


5 17 


6 43 


1 45 


5 18 


6 42 


2 25 


5 19 


6 41 


3 1 


5 19 


6 41 


3 52 


5 20 


6 40 


sets 


5 21 


6 39 


7 40 



Battle of Weisenburg. 1870. 

Tiscount Piowlaud Hill, born, 1772. 

Pope Gregory IX, died. 1241. 

Earthquake in Scotland, 1816. 

G. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died, 1794. 

Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Battle of Bennington, 1777. 



33) 11th Sunday after Trinity. Lnke 18. 



Day's length, 13h. 16m. 



17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 22 


6 38 


8 8 


5 23 


6 37 


8 34 


5 24 


6 36 


9 5 


25 


6 35 


9 45 


5 26 


6 34 


10 21 


5 27 


6 33 


11 


i 5 28 


6 32 


11 40 



Frederick the Great, died, 1786. 

John Earl Eussell. born, 1792. 

Battle of Gravelotte, 1870. 

Robert Herrick, English Poet, born, 1591. 

Lady Mary Wortley 3Iontague, died, 1762. 

Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of phrenologv. died, 

Wallace, beheaded. 1305. ' ' [1828. 



34) 12th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark 7. 



Day's length, 13h. 02m. 



24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 29 


6 31 


morn 


5 30 


6 30 


12 51 


5 31 


6 29 


1 56 


5 32 


6 28 


3 4 


5 33 


6 27 


4 12 


5 34 


6 26 


rises 


5 35 


6 25 


7 20 



St. Bartholomew, Apostle. 

25th or 27th, Landing of C£esar in England, 

Sir Eob. Walpole born, 1676. [55 B. C. 

Battle of Long Island, 1776. 

Dog days end. 

John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1632. 

Union defeat at Eichmond, Ky. 



35) 13th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 10. 



Dav's length, 12h. 48m. 



31 j Sunday ' 5 36 I 6 24 i 7 52 I John Bunyan, died, 1683. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650.— August 1., Chamisho Osor. 
16, and 17., Rosh Chodesh Elul. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



15 



9tli Month. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tt\e Soutl:ierr\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 5d. 

New Moon — 14d. 

First Quarter 21d. 

Full Moon 28d. 



lOh. 9m. Evening. 

2h. 33m. Morning. 

4h. 45m. Evening. 

7h. 39m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 



Sun 
rises. 



Sun 

sets. 



Moon 
r. & 8. 



CHROlVOliOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



M on day 

Tuesdaj- 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 37 


6 23 


8 20 


5 38 


6 22 


8 50 


5 40 


6 20 


9 22 


5 42 


6 18 


9 55 


5 43 


6 17 


10 31 


5 44 


6 16 


11 16 



NaDoleon III, captured at Sedan, 1870. 
Great fire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric poet, 518, B. C. 
Confederates entered Maryland, 1862. 
Geo. Alex. Stevens, v/riterj died, 1784. 



36) 14th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 17. 



Day's length, 12h. 30m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



5 45 


6 15 


morn 


5 46 


6 14 


12 25 


5 47 


6 13 


12 57 


5 48 


6 12 


1 54 


5 49 


6 U 


2 48 


5 51 


6 9 


3 34 


5 52 


6 8 


4 20 



Independence of Brazil, 1822. 

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 

James lY, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 

Mungo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771. 

James Thomson, poet, born, 1700. 

St. Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520. 



37) 15th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 6. 



Day's length, 12h. 14m. 



Sunday 


5 53 


6 7 


sets 


Monday 


5 54 


6 6 


7 9 


Tuesday 


5 55 


6 5 


7 44 


Wednesday 


5 56 


6 4 


8 10 


Thursday 


5 57 


6 3 


8 41 


Friday 


5 58 


6 2 


9 15 


Saturday 


5 58 


6 2 


10 29 



Uprising of tlie People of New Orleans against the Dsnrping goyemment. 

Caj^ture Harper's Ferry by St'U Jackson. '62, 

Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, died, 1736. 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 

Gilbert Bishop Burnet, historian, born, 1643. 

First Battle of Paris, 1870. 

Alexander the Great, born, 356, B. C. 



38^ 16th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 7. 



Day's length, 12h. 02m. 



21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

27 



Sunday 


5 59 


6 1 


10 51 


Monday 


6 


6 


11 51 


Tuesday 


6 1 


5 59 


morn 


Wednesday 


6 2 


5 58 


12 56 


Thursday 


6 3 


5 57 


2 6 


Friday 


6 4 


5 56 


3 19 


Saturday 


6 5 


5 55 


4 31 



St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Uncott, Manusc. Collec, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 

Pacific Ocean discovered, 1513. 

Saints Cvprian and Justina, Martyrs, 304. 

Strassburg fell, 1870. 



39) 17th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 14. 



Day's length, llh. 48m. 



Sunday 

Monday 
Tuesday 



6 


5 54 


rises 


Y 


5 53 


7 12 


8 


5 52 


7 45 



Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746 
Michaelmas Day. 
Yorktown invested, 1781. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5650.— September 15. and 16., Bosh Hashonoh 5651. 
17., Zom Gedaljah. 24., Yom Kippur. 29. and 30., First days Suckoth. 



IG 



KICHAliD FKOTSCHEE S ALMANAC A^•I) GARDEN MANtAL 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tl:\e Soutl:\eri\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 5d. 2h. 

New Moon 13d. oh. 

First Quarter - . 21d. 12h. 

Full Moon . . 27d. 6h. 



'13m. Afternoon. 
4om. Evening. 
16m. Morning. 
21m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month and Week. 



Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. s s. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

JMPORTAyT E TEXTS. 



Wednesday 


6 9 


Thursday 


6 10 


Friday 


11 


Saturday 


6 12 

1 



5 51 j 8 17 ! Fulton's first Steamboat trip, 1807, 

5 50 I 8 57 I Andre executed as a sdv, 1780. 

5 49 9 89 i Black Hawk, died. 1838.' 

5 48 10 25 Battle of aermantown, 1777. 



40) 18th Sundav after Trinitv. 



Matth. 22. 



Day's length, lih. 32m, 



Sunday 

Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 

Tlir.rsda.. 

Friday 

Saturday 



i 6 14 


5 46 


11 15 1 


i 6 15 


5 45 


morn 


i 6 16 


5 44 


12 17 


1 G 17 


5 43 


1 24 ! 


j 6 18 


5 42 


2 29 


6 19 


5 41 


3 47 


6 20 


5 40 


4 33 



Horace Walpole, born, 1717. 

Jenny Lind. born, 1820. 

Margaret. Maid of Xorwav, died, 1290. 

Battle of Perrvvilie, Ky., 1862. 

Great fire in Chicaq-o. 1871. 

Benjainio West, Painter, born, 1738. 

America discovered, 1492. 



41) 19th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 9. 



Day's length, llh. 18m. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Th'irsday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 21 


5 39 


5 8 


6 23 


5 37 


sets. 


^ 6 24 


5 36 


6 55 


6 25 


5 35 


7 7 


i 6 26 


5 34 


7 38 i 


1 6 27 


5 33 


8 18 1 


1 6 28 


5 32 


9 15 : 



St. Wilfrid, Bishop of New York, 709. 

Battle of Queenstovrn, 1812. 

Battle of Jena. 1806. 

Yirgil, Latin Poet, born. 70 B. C. 

Marie Antoinette beheaded, 1793. 

Burgoyne surrendered, 1777. 

Last State Lottery drawn in England, 1826. 



4t>) 20th Sunday after Trinity 



Matth. 22. 



Day's length, llh. 02m. 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 29 


5 31 


10 13 


6 30 


5 30 


11 11 


6 31 


5 29 


morn 


6 32 


5 28 


12 22 ! 


6 33 


5 27 


. 1 37 


6 34 


5 26 


2 44 


6 35 


5 25 


3 53 



Cornwallis surrendered, 1781. 

M. Dahl, Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Charles Martel, died. 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 



43) 21st Sunday after Trinity. 



John 4. 



Day's length, lOh. 48m. 



26 


Sunday 


6 36 5 24 


4 53 


HoGfarth. died, 1765. 




27 


Monday 


6 37 


5 23 


rises 


Cuba discovered. 1492. 




28 


Tuesday 


G 38 


5 22 


6 27 


Battle at White Plains, 1776. 




29 


^'''ednesday 


6i;.39 


5 21 


7 1 


Surrender of Metz. 1870. 




30 


Thursday 


6 40 


5 20 


7 45 


Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. 


C. 


3: 


Friday 


6 41 


5 19 


8 26 


All Hallow Eve. 





Jewish Festivals and Fasts. —5651. —October 5, Hashaino Kabo. 5, Shemini Azereth. 
7. simchas Thora. 14 and 15, Rosh Chodesh Marcheschwan. 



FOR THE SoO'rHERN STaTeS. 



1^ 



11th, Month. 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of ti\e Soutl:\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 4d. 

IS ew Moon ... 12d. 

First Quarter 19d. 

Full Moon 26d. 



lOh. 53m. Morning. 

8h. 17m. Morning. 

7h. 24:m. Morning. 

8h. 2m. Morning. 




DAY 

OF 

Month and Week 



CHKOIVOL.OGY 

— OF— 

IMPOTtTANT EVENTS. 



1 j Saturday j 6 42 I 5 18 I 9 21 ] All Saints Day 



44) 22d Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 18. 



Day's length, lOh. 34m. 



Sunday 


6 43 


5 17 


10 12 


Monday 


6 44 


5 16 


11 24 


Tuesday 


6 45 


5 15 


morn 


Wednesday 


6 45 


5 15 


12 


Thursday 


6 46 


5 14 


12 47 


Friday 


6 47 


5 13 


1 37 


Saturday 


6 48 


5 12 


2 25 



All Souls Day. 

Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, 1148. 

George Peabody, died, 1869. 

The American 74 launched. 1782. 

Battle of Port Koyal, 1861. ' 

John Kyrle, "The Man of Koss," died, 1724. 

Cortez entered Mexico, 1519. 



45) 23d Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 22. 



Day's length, lOh. 22m. 



9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



6 49 


5 11 


3 17 


6 50 


5 10 


4 17 


6 51 


5 9 


5 15 


6 52 


5 8 


sets 


6 53 


5 7 


6 6 


6 54 


5 6 


7 9 


6 54 


5 6 


8 9 



Great fire in Boston, 1872. 
Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570. 
Martinmas, 

Sherman left Atlanta, 1864. 
French entered Vienna, 1805. 
Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 
John Keppier, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 
, _ ^ 



46) 24th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 9. 



Day's length, lOh. 10m. 




Tiberius, Eoman Emperor, born, 42 B. C. 
Suez Canal opened 1869. 
Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231. 
Thomas Chatterton, Poet, born, 1752. 
Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 
Professor Dugald Stewart, born, 1753. 



•4^) 25th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 24. 



Day's length, lOh. 05m, 



23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 



Sunday 


7 1 


4 59 


3 10 


Monday 


7 2 


4 58 


4 20 


Tuesday 


7 2 


4 58 


5 40 


Wednesday 


7 3 


4 57 


rises 


Thursday 


7 3 


4 57 


6 10 


Friday 


7 3 


4 57 


7 4 


Saturday 


7 4 


4 56 


7 54 



Th. Henderson, Prof, of Astron., died, 1844. 
Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863. 
Evacuation of New York, 1783. 
John Elwes, noted Miser, died, 1789. 
Steam Printing, 1814. 
Washington Irving, died, 1859. 
Sir Philip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 



48) 1st Sunday in Advent, 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 09h. 52m. 



30 j Sunday | 7 4 | 4 56 | 8 49 I U. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1803, 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.--5631.— November 13., Rosh Chodesh Kislev, 



KICHARi) FROTSCHEE'S ALilAXAC AND GAEDEN MaNCaL 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of t>\e Souil\ern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 4d. 8h. 6m. Morning. 

New Moon lid. 9h. 50m. Evening. 

First Quarter 18d. 3h. 16m. Evening. 

Full Moon 26d. 12h. 37m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Slontli and Week. 



Sun 
rises. 



Snn Moon 
sets, j r. & s. 

h. rsi. I h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTAyr EVENTS. 



ilouday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



_ 




o 


•i oo 


6 


4 54 


6 


■i 54 


7 


4 53 


7 


4 53 


i 


4 53 



9 47 ! 

10 47 I 

11 4>i I 
morn \ 

12 24 I 
1 23 I 



Princess A. Comnena, Historian, born, 1083. 

Hernan Cortez, died, 1547. 

Eobert Bloomfield, Poet, born, 1776. 

Pope John XXII, died, 1334. 

Carlyle, born, 1795. 

St. Xicholas, Archbishop of Myra, 342. 



49) 2d Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Day's length, 09h. 44m. 



7 Suuday 

8 Monday 

9 j Tuesday 

10 j Wednesday 

11 : Thursday 

12 • Friday 

13 : Saturday 




Cicero, Eoman orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin. 

Milton, born, 1608. 

Louis Xapoieon. elected President, 1848. 

Louis, Prince of Conde, died 1686. 

St. Columba, Abbot in Ireland. 584. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 09h. 40ra, 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



7 10 


4 50 


7 43 


7 10 


4 50 


8 57 ■ 


, 7 10 


4 50 


10 11 : 


; 7 10 


4 50 


11 22 1 


1 7 11 


4 49 


morni 


7 11 


4 49 


12 ' 


7 11 


4 49 


1 6 



Washington, died, 1799. 

David Don. Botanist, died, 1841. 

Great Fire in Xew York, 1835. 

Ludw. Beethoven, emin. comp., born, 1770. 

St. Wiuebald, Abbot and Confessor. 760. 

Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Xav., born, 1790. 

Secession ord. passed in S. Carolina, 1860. 



51) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 09h. 36m. 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



7 12 


4 48 


2 14 i 


7 11 


4 49 


3 16 \ 


7 11 


4 49 


4 26 ' 


7 11 


4 49 


5 21 : 


7 11 


4 49 


6 10 


7 I'l 


4 50 


rises : 


7 10 


4 50 


6 13 , 



St. Thomas. Apostle. 

Emp. Yitellius, beheaded at Eome, 69 A. D. 

Xewton, born, 1642. 

Treaty of Ghent. 1814. 

Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day. 

Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 



52) Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 09h. 40m. 



28 I Sunday 

29 I Monday 

30 Tuesday 

31 Wednesday 



7 10 


4 50 


7 10 


7 9 


4 51 


8 11 


i 7 9 


4 51 


9 9 1 


' 7 9 


4 51 


10 5 i 



Macauley, died, 1S59. 
Fnion repulsed at Yicksburg, Miss., 1862, 
Titus. Eoman Emperor, born, 41 A. D. 
Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5651.— December 
12., Eosh Chodesh Thebet. 



. Chanukah, 




SOUTHERN CASHAW PUMPKIN. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 19, 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 



The size depends upon the purposes for which it is intended ; whether the 
family is large or small, and the time which can be devoted to its cultivation. The 
most suitable, soil for a garden is a light loam. When the soil is top heavy, it 
ought to be made light by applying stable manure, and working up the ground 
thoroughly. Trenching as done in Europe, or North,' is not advisable, at least 
where there is any cocoa, as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so deeply 
incorporated with the soil that trouble will be met with afterwards to get rid of it. 
Exposure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or more large trees in 
the garden, or on the immediate outside, their shade can be used in which to sow 
Celery, Cabbage and other seeds during the hot summer months, which will be an 
advantage. The seed beds for this purpose should be so arranged as to receive only 
the morning or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the ground 
should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise good vegetables. 
The most reliable manure for general purposes is well decomposed stable or barn- 
yard manure. Cow manure will suit best for light, sandy soil, and horse manure 
for heavy, stiff clay lands. For special purposes, Peruvian Guano, Blood Ferti- 
lizer, Kaw Bone, Cotton Seed Meal and other commercial manures may be em-^ 
ployed with advantage. Of late years most gardeners who work their land with a 
plow, use Cow peas as a fertilizer with excellent result. They are sown broad-cast 
at the rate of 1| bushels to the acre, and when large enough they are turned under. 
Where the land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has the most lasting effect. For 
quick growing crops, such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the Blood Fertilizer and 
Guano applied in the hills are very good. Soap suds are good for Celery ; it is as- 
tonishing to perceive the difference in the size of those stalks which are watered 
every few days with the suds, and others on the same ground which are not. Wood 
ashes are best for Peas, either used as a top dressing when the Peas just come out 
of the ground, or else sprinkled in the rows when planted. The New Orleans mar- 
ket gardeners raise as fine vegetables as can be produced anywhere ; in fact, some 
varieties cannot be excelled, and very few gardeners use anything but stable 
manure. . 

Rotation of Crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots and other 
roots should not be grown in succession on the same ground, but should be changed 
to those which grow above ground, such as Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, 
good ground and good cultivation are essential in order to raise good vegetables. 
When plants are up, the ground should be stirred frequently; weeds ought not to 
be suffered to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as they appear. Hoe- 
ing and working the young crops during dry weather is very beneficial because the 
weeds are then easily killed, and hoeing the ground will make it retain raoisturq 
better than if it were left alone. 



20 



mCSAfiD I'RO'fSCHER's ALMa1?AC AND GARCEI? MANttAL 




THE HOT By^D 



Owing to the open winters in the South, hot beds are not so much used as in 
the Nortli, except to raise such tender plants as Egg-Plants, Tomatoes and Pep- 
pers. There is little forcing of vegetables done here, except as regards Cucumbers 
and Lettuce ; and, if we do not have anj^ hard frosts, the latter does better in the 
open ground than under glass. To make a hot bed is a ver}' simple thing. Any 
one who has the use of tools can make the wooden frame; the sashes may be ob- 
tained from any sash factory. I consider a woo len frame from live to six feet wide 
and ten feet six inches long a very good size. It should be at least six inches higher 
at the back than in the front, and covered by three sashes 3|x5 feet. The manure 
ought not to be over one month old ; it should be thrown together in a heap, and 
when commencing to heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and short 
manure evenly mixed. In this State the ground is generally low, and to retain the 
heat of the manure for a longer time it is best to put the manure on top of the 
ground— that is, make a bank two feet longer and two feet wider than the frame. 
Keep the edges straight and the corners firm ; when thrown up about eighteen inches 
trample the manure down to six or eight inches, then put on another layer of eigh- 
teen inches and trample down again ; place thereon the frame and sash, and fill in 
six inches of good earth. After about five days stir the ground to kill the weeds 
which may have come up, then sow the. seeds. In lower Louisiana the ground is 
too wet to dig out eighteen inches deep, throw in the manure and trample down as 
recommended in the North ; by a few hard rains, such as we frequently have in 
winter, the manure would become so soaked beneath the ground that the heat 
would be gone. Another advantage, when the frame is put above the ground, is, 
that it will go down with the manure gradually, and there remains always the same 
space between the glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the manure 
put into the frame, the ground will sink down so low, after a short time, that the sun 
will have little effect upon it, anil plants will become spindly. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 21 



SOWING SEEDS, 



Some seeds are sown at once where they are to remain and mature. Others 
are sown in seed beds and transplanted afterwards. Seeds should be covered ac- 
cording to their sizes, a covering of earth twice the size of the seed is about the max- 
imum. Some seeds, such as Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from one to two 
inches, and they will come up well. Here is a difference again: Wrinkled Peas 
and Sugar Corn have to be covered lighter and more carefully than Marrowfat 
Peas or the common varieties of Corn. It depends upon the nature of the soil, sea- 
son of the year, etc. For instance, in heavy wet soils seeds have to be covered 
lighter than in sandy light ground. Seeds which are sown during summer in the 
open ground, such as Beets and Carrots, should be soaked over night in water and 
rolled in ashes or plaster before sowing ; they will come up quicker. When they 
are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not to bake after a 
rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when sown during the summer, such 
as Cauliflower, Celery and Lettuce. Care should be taken to have the shade at 
least three feet from the ground, and shade only after the sun has been on the bed 
for two or three hours ; and remove again early in the afternoon, so the plants may 
become sturdy. If too much shaded they will be drawn up, long-legged, and not 
fit to be set out in the open ground. The most successful cabbage planters in this 
neighborhood sow their seeds in the open ground, towards the end of July and dur- 
ing August, and give them no shade but water, and keep the ground moist from 
the day of sowing till the plants are transplanted. Seeds should be sown thinly 
in the seed bed. If plants come up too thickly they are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months before sowing, accord- 
ing to directions given for June, 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall months, the 
ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown just before or during a 
rain. Small pieces of ground, of course, can be sown at any time and watered 
afterwards. For covering all kinds of seeds, a fork is preferable to a rake ; with 
either implement, care must be taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas 
and Corn are covered with the hoe. Some fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco, 
are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to the ground. The 
seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds which have not come up, when the 
same are perfectly good ; but, perhaps, through ignorance the party by whom they 
were sown, placed them too deep or too shallow in the ground, or the ground may 
have been just moist enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At 
other times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a crust that the 
seeds are not able to penetrate, or, if there is too much fresh manure in the ground, 
it will burn the seed, and destroy its vitality. 

When seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are planted before 
it i» warm enough, they are very apt to rot if it rains. • 



22 



KICHARD FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Seeds requisite to produce a given number of Plants and sow a given 

amount of ground. 



Quantity 
per acre. 

Artichoke, 1 oz. to 500 plants 3^ lb. 

Asparagus, 1 oz. to .00 plants — 5 lbs. 

Barley 2V^bu. 

Beans, dwarf, 1 quart to 150 feet of drill. . . IV4 " 

Beans, pole, 1 quart to 200 hills J/^ " 

Beet, garden, 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill 10 lbs. 

Beet, Mangel, 1 oz. to 150 feet of drill 6 " 

Broccoli, 1 oz. to 3,000 plant's 5 oz. 

Broom Corn. .. ... 10 lbs. 

Brussels Sprouts, ! oz. to 3,000 plants. — 5 oz. 

Buckwheat ... Vi bu. 

*Cabbage,- 1 oz. to 3,000 plants 5 oz. 

Carrot, 1 oz. to 250 feet of drill . . 2}4, lbs 

*Cauliflower, 1 oz. to 3,000 plants 5 oz. 

*Celerv, 1 oz. to 10,000 plants 4 

Clover, Alsike and White Dutch 6 lbs 

" Lucerne. Large . Red & Crimson 

Tr<3foil 8 lbs. 

Medium 10 lbs. 

*Collards, 1 oz. to 2,500 plants 6 oz. 

Corn, sweet, 1 quart to 500 hills ..8 qts. 

Cress, 1 oz. to 15C feet of drill . ... 8 lbs. 

Cucumber, I oz. to SO hills IJ,^ " 

Egg Plant, L oz. to 2,000 plants ... 3 oz 

Endive, 1 oz. to 300 feet of drill 3 lbs. 

Flax, broadcast. 3^ bu. 

(4ourd,_l oz. to 25hills 23^],bs 

Grass, Blue Kentucky. ... ..2 bu. 

" Blue English 1 '• 

" Hungarian and Millet. Y^ " 

'• Mixed Lawn. . ... .. 3 y" 

. " Orchard, Perennial Rye, Red Top, 

Fowl Meadow and ^yood Meadow . 2 " 
* The above calculations are made for sowin< 

double the quantity to give the same amount of pi; 



Garlic, bulbs, 1 lb. to 10 feet of drill . . . 

Hemp ... 

Kale, 1 oz. to 3,000 plants. 

Kohl-Rabi, 1 oz. to 200 feet of drill 

Leek, 1 oz. to 250 feet of drill 

Lettuce, 1 oz. to 250 feet of drill 

Melon, Musk, 1 oz. to 100 hills 

Melon, Water, 1 oz. to 2.5 hills 

Nasturtium. 1 oz. to 50 feet of drill 

Oats. .. ..- . . 

Okra, 1 oz. to 50 feet of drill 

Onion Seed, 1 oz to 200 feet of drill . . . 
" for Sets 

Onion Sets, 1 quart to 20 feet of drill. . . . 

Parsnip, I oz. to 250 feet of drill 

Parsley, 1 oz. to 250 feet of drill 

Peas, garden, 1 quart to 150 feet of drill. 
" held 

Pepper, 1 oz. to 1,500 plants ... 

Potatoes. ... .. 

Pumpkin, 1 quart to 300 hills 

Radish, 1 oz. to 150 feet of drill 

Rye .... . 

Salsify, 1 oz. to 60 feet of drill. 

Spinach, ' oz. to 150 feet of drill , 

Summer Savory, 1 oz. to 500 feet of drill 

Squash, summer, 1 oz. to 40 hills ... 
" winter, 1 oz. to 10 hills 

Tomato, 1 oz. to 3,000 plants. 

Tobacco, 1 oz. to 5,000 plants 

Turnip, 1 oz. to 250 feet of drill ... 

Vetches. _ .. 

AVheat .. 

;^ in the spring; during the summer it 
mts. 



Quantity 
per acre 

; i^bu. 
.. 4 oz. 

IVolbs. 
4" " 



1% '■ 
I'A " 
10 " 
2^ bu. 
10 lbs. 

4 " 
30 '• 

8 bu. 

5 lbs. 
8 " 

\V2h\x. 
2V2 " 
4 oz. 
10 bu. 
4 qts. 
8 lbs. 
!}.<bu. 
8 "lbs. 



2 " 
. 3 '' 

3 oz. 

. l^lbs. 
. 2 bu. 
1 to 1 " 
requires 



Number of Plants or Trees to the Acre at given distances. 



Dis. apart. No. Plants, i Dis. apart. No. 



y^ foot. 

1 " 

13^ feet 

2 " 

^.^ " .... 

3 feet bv 1 foot.. 
3 " 2 feet.. 



174,240 I 3 feet by 3 feet. 



19,360 I 
10,890 ' 

6,969 i 
14,5-'0 I 

7,260 1 



1 foot. 

2 feet. 
.3 
4 



Plants. 

. 4,8^10 

. 10,888 

. 5,444 

. 3,629 

. 2,7 '2 

. 1,742 



Dis. apart. 
6 feet. . 



No. 



Plants. I Dis. apart. No. Plants. 
...1,210 ! 12 feet 302 



889 15 



680 
573 
435 
360 



19:'. 
134 
108 
60 



Standard Weight of Various Articles. 



Apples 

" dried. 

Barlev 


per bush. 48 lbs. 
22 " 
48 " 
60 " 
48 " 
46 " 
i4 " 
24 '• 
20 " 
60 " 
46 " 
60 " 
56 " 
70 " 
50 " 
" 22 " 
80 " 
40 " 
28 " 
56 " 
44 " 
48 " 
60 " 
50 " 

3-S " 
3, .< 

33 " 
14 " 


Onions 

Peas 

Plastering Hair 


per 


bush. 54 1 

60 
" 8 


Beans. 

Buckwheat ... 


Rape 

Rve 




50 
" 56 


Broom Corn.... 

Blue Grass, Kentucky 

" English 


Red Top Seed - 

Salt, Coarse 

Salt, Michigan 

Sweet Potatoes 


. 


14 

50 

56 

" 56 


Canary Seed ... 

Castor Beans 

Clover Seed 

Corn, shelled 


Timothv Seed 






Turnips 

AVheat 

Beef and Pork, per bbl 
Flour per bbl , net • . • 


., net 


58 

60 

... 200 


^' on ear 




196 


Corn Meal 

Charcoal 

Coal, Mineral 

Cranberries . . 

Dried Peaches 


"White Fish and Trout, 

Salt, per bbl 

Lime, " 

Hav, well settled, per 
Corn, on cob, in bin 

" .shelled " 
Wheat, 
Oats, 
Potatoes, 
Sand, drv. 
Clay, compact, 
IVIarble, 

Seasoned Beech Wood 
Hickory, 


per bbl., net.. 
3ubic foot. 


... 200 
... 280 
... 220 

■ ,1>^ 


Flax Seed ... . . 


ti 


45 


Hemp Seed 

•Hungarian Grass Seed 

Irish Potatoes, heaping measure 

Millet 

Malt 

Oats 


<i • 


... 48 
. . . 2514 


.( 


38V< 




... 95 
... 135 

169 


Osage Orange 

Orchard Grass 


5,616 ' 




6,960 ' 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



23 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of VEGETABLE SEEDS. 



ARTICHOKE. 

Artichaut (Fr.) Artischoke (G.) 
Alcachofa (Sp.) 
liargre Careen OSobe. This 
is a very popular vegetable in 
the South, and much esteemed 
by the native as well as the for- 
eign population from the South 
of Europe. It is extensively cul- 
tivated for the New Orleans 
market. It is best propaL'-ated 
from suckers which come up 
around the large plants. Take 
them off during the fail and 
early winter months ; plant them 
four feet apart each way. Every 
fall the ground should be man- 
ured and spaded or plowed be- 
tween them ; at the same time 
the suckers should be taken off. 
If planted by seed, sow them 
in drills during winter or early 
spring, three inches apart and 
one foot from row to row ; covei' 
with about one-half inch of 
earth. The following fall the 
plants can be transplanted and 
cultivated as recommended 
above. The seeds I offer are im- 
ported by me from Italy, and of 
superior quality ; I can also fur- 
nish sprouts or ])lants in the 
fall of the year, at $1.50 per 10(i. 

Early CanzpaeBsa. An 

early variety imported by me 
from Italy and which fruited for 




Early Campauia. 



the first time four years ago. The cut represents as it grows, and has been taken 
from a branch brought to me ; it is flatter at the base than the Globe ; it is very 
early, but has not proven itself as hardy as the foregoing kind. 

ASPARAGUS. 

Asperge (Fr.), Spargel (Ger.), Esparagos (Sp.) 

Purple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the South ; not 
that it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it does not succeed as well 
as in more Northern latitudes. It seems that it is short-lived, the roots giving out 
soon or tbroAyin^ up yepy small shoots, 



2i kichaed fkotschze's almanac a:>d gakdex manual 



The ground should be well manured and prepared before either the roots or 
seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is preferable. Eoots are 
generally imported from the North, and I have found that the roots raised here, 
one 3'ear old, are as strong as those received from the Xorth three years old. Plant 
the seed in early spring. Soak over night in water ; plant in rows, or rather hills, 
one foot apart and two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill ; when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter, when the stalks are cut off, 
cover with a heavy cqat of well rotted manure and a sprinkling of salt ; nshbrine 
will answer the same purpose. In the spring fork in the man are between the rows, 
and keep clean of weeds. The same treatment should be repeated every year. 
The bed should not be cut before being three years established. Care must be 
taken not to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year — not until we have had 
a frost. If cut before, it will cause the roots to throw up young shoots, which will 
weaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 

CULTURE. 

Place in rows eighteen inches apart ; drop a bean every two or three inches. 
Plant from end of February, and for succession, every two or three weeks to May. 
Bush Beans planted in this latitude during June and July, will not produce much. 
August and September are good months in which to plant again ; they will pro- 
duce abundantly till killed by the frost. Do not cover the seeds more than two 
inches. 

POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become warm in 
spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from four to six feet apart, and 
the ground drawn around them before the seed is planted. It is always best to 
plant after a rain and with the eye of the bean down. The other varieties can be 
planted flat, and not more than three to four feet apart, and hilled after they are 
up. Do not cover the seeds more than two inches ; one inch is enough for the 
Southern Prolific and Crease Back. 

BEANS. 

(DWAEF, SNAP or BUSH. ) 
Habicot (Fr.i, Bohne ^Ger.), Fkijolexano (Sp- i 
Pride of Newton. Early China Red-Eije. 

Earhj Valentine Bed Speckled. Bed Kidney. 

Early Mohawk Six Weekii. Dwarf Golden Wax. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. Best of AIL 

German Dwarf Wax. Improved. Valentine. 

White Kidney. 1 WardweWs Dwarf Kidney Wax. 

Pride of Newton. Xovelty from Early Hlohawk Six weeks. This 
last year. This is a robust, strong grow- is a long podded variety, and very hardy, 
ing beaD with long flat pods, which are It is used to a large extent for the mar- 
light green. It is quite early and very ket for the first planting ; very produc- 
productive. The bean is similar to the tive. 

Yellow Six Weeks in color, but much Early Yellovv.'Six Tf^eeks. This 

hardier. is the most popular sort among market 

Early Valentine, one of the best gardeners. Pods flat and long ; a very 
varieties ; pods round, tender and quite good bearer, but not so good for ship- 
productive : not much planted for the ping as the Mohawk or Valentine, 
market. Excellent for shipping. German Dwarf IVax. Agoodva- 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



25 



riety which is unsurpassed as a soap 
bean. Pods are of a wax color and have 
no strings ; quite productive. Has come 
into general cultivation ; cannot be too 
highly recommended. 

\¥fiiUe liidBiey. A good strong 
growing variety, not much planted. 

Early CBBliiaMed-Eye. Early and 
of good quality, but not very popular. 

Med Kidney. This variety is largely 
planted for the New Orleans market. 
It is a coarse growing variety, and much 
used for shelling when the pods turn 
yellow, so that the beans are well devel 
oped, but yet soft. 

Dwarf OoBdcBi H^ax. A dwaif 
variety with Hat pods, longer than the 
Dwarf German Wax ; entirely stringless 
and white, mottled with purplish red 
This variety will come into general cul 




tivation, and will in time take the place 
of the black seeded Wax, being earlier 
and more productive. 

Best of All. A variety from Ger- 
many of great merit, introduced here 
by me. It is green podded, long and 
succulent; it is prolific and well fla- 
vored. An excellent variety for shipping 
and family use. It is not quite so early 
as the Mohawk, but is of superior quality 
for shipping, and, therefore, is almost 




Dwarf Golden Wax Beau. 



Best of All Bean /i natural sizt 



26 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



the only kind planted 
here for that purpose. 
The cut is a good rep- 
re sen tat ion as it 
grows; it shows only 
two-thirds of its natu- 
ral size. Can not be too 
highly recommended. 
I expect to have a' full 
supply this year. 

Improved Valeia- 
tiiie. This variety has 
all the good qualities 
of the old Valentine ; 
only, it is ten days ear- 
lier, a great consi<lera- 
tion when planted for 
the market ; it will su- 
persede the old varie- 
ty of Valentine. 

1¥ a r d \^ e I i ' s 
Dwarf M. i d B 1 e y 
Wax» This kind was 
introduced two years 
ago. It is the best 
dwarf Wax Bean in 
cultivation ; it is quite 
early ; the pods are of 
similar shape as the 
Golden Wax, but long- 
er ; color of a beautiful 
golden yellow. They 
are very prolific iind 




Fride of Ne\vtvOii Beau. 




FOK THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



27 



hardy, surpassing any other Dwarf Wax Bean that I know of. The color of the bean 
is somewhat like the Golden Wax, but more kidney-shaped and more spotted with 
dark purple. It has done best here among the Dwarf Wax Beans. Of all the many 
new kinds I have tried, I found none to excel it. 

Dw^arf Flageolet l^ax. A German variety which figures as Perfection 
Wax, also Scarlet Flageolet Wax in some catalogues. It is a robust growing sort 
with large line yellow pods. This is the first year that I put it upon my list, but I 
have had it in stock since three years, and have tried to introduce it amongst the 
gardeners who still give the WardweU's Kidney the preference. 




Improved Valentine. 



BEANS. 

POLE OE EUNNING. 
Haricots a Rames (Fr.), Stangen-Bohnen (Ger.), Frijol Vastago (Sp.), 



Large Lima. 

Carolina or Sewee. 

Southern Willow-leaved Sewee or Batter. 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 

Dutch Cane Knife. 

German Wax or Butter. i 

l.ars-e Linia. A well-known and excellent variety. It is the best shell beaA 
l^nown, Should have rich ground, and plenty room to grow. 



Southern Prolific. 
Create Back. 

New Golden Wax Flageolet. 
Lazy Wife's. 
Neio Golden Andalusia Wax. 



28 



BICHAKD FKOTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Carolina or §e^vee. A Tariety similar to the Lima ; the only difference is, 
the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally cultivated, being more productive 
than the Large Lima. 

Morticiiltiiral or IrTreai's Eg§r. Does not grow very strong ; bears well, 
pods about six inches long, which are roundish and very tender. 

Dutch Case Ksslfe. A very good pole bean; it is early; pods broad and 
long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Oersiiaii "^Vax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good qualities as the 

German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance ; very succulent and tender. 

Soiitlierii Froaifie. No variety will continue longer in bearing than this. 

It stands The heat oi the summer better than any other, and is planted to succed 

the other kinds. It is a very strong grower ; pods 
about seven inches long and flat ; seeds are dark yel- 
low or rather light brown. It is the standard variety 
for tte New Orleans market, for late spring and 
summer. 

Crease Back.. A variety of Pole Beans which 
has been cultivated in the South for a long time, but 
has never come into the trade till introduced by me. 
It is an excellent bean, earlier than the "Southern 
Prolific. '■-■ Seeds white ; pods round, with a crease in 
the hack, from which the name. It is a good grower, 
bears abundantly, and, if shipped, will keep better 

than most other 
kinds. It sells bet- 
ter in the spring 
than any other for 
shipping purpose ; 
and when in season, 
it can not be sur- 
passed. For early 
summer, the South- 
ern Prolific is pre- 
ferable, standing 
the heat better. 
Several years ago 
I received half a 
bushel from near 
Mobile, Ala., and 
all the beans of this 
variety in the whole 
country can be 
traced back to that 
half bushel. I sup- 
plied two growers 
in Georgia where it 
was not known at 
that time. I expect 
to have a full sup- 
ply this season. 
There is a light 

White Creai^e Back Beau>. I.azv WiiVs Pol^ Beans. brown bean streak- 





¥on THE Southern states. 



29 



ed and mottled with dark brown 
and black of the same name; 
but it is not equal to the white 
variety. In some localities this 
kind is called "Calico Crease 
Back. " The white seeded varie- 
ty is also known in some sections 
by the name of "Fat Horse." 
This is the original stock ; the 
quality is so fine that no im- 
provement can be made on it. 
OoldeBi Wax Flui;:eolct. 
This variety was introduced 
three years ago ; it was brought 
out from Germany. After anoth- 
er year's experience I can con- 
firm all what is claimed for at. 
It is the best Wax Pole Bean in 




NeWGouden 



Golden Wax Flaeeolet Prile rienus. 




30 



EICHAKD PEOTSCHEPv'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



cultivation, surpasses in length and 
delicacy of flavor all other Wax varie- 
ties. It is a very strong grower, which is 
wanting by most of the Wax Pole kinds. 
It bears abundantly, is entirely string- 
less, and does not spot, even by too 
much rain or other untoward weather. 
Cannot be too highly recommended. The 
Golden Wax Pole Bean, brought out two 
years ago, I have dropped, as it can 
stand no comparison with the Golden 
Wax Flageolet. 

liazy Wile's. A new Pole Bean from 
Pennsylvania. The pods a-re entirely 
stringless, 4—5 inches long, and have a 
fine flavor when cooked. They retain 
their rich flavor until nearly ripe. The 



beans are white, and as fine as a shell 
bean. 
SoMttiern l¥illo^v-Ieaved Sewee 

or Statter. This is a variety which is 
grown by the market gardeners about 
New^ Orleans ; the pods and beans are 
the same as the Sewee or Carolina 
Bean ; it is quite distinct in the leaves, 
being narrow like the willow. It stands 
the heat better than any other Butter 
Bean, and is very productive. Try it., 
i^ew Ooadeii AisdaBiisia Wax 
Beasi. Novelty of last year. This is a 
very productive sort, but the pods -are 
rather small as compared with some 
other kinds. Eecommend same highly 
for family use. 



ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais (Fr.), PuFF-BoHNEN„(Ger.), Haba Comun (Sp.). 



Broad Windsor. Not so much cul- 
tivated here as in some parts of Europe. 
It is much liked by the people of the 
Southern part of Europe. Ought to be 



planted during November 
in the spring, they will 
much. 



as, if planted 
not produce 



BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Eunkelruebe (Ger.j, Eemolacha (Sp.). 



Extra Early or Bassano. 
Simon's Early Bed Turnip. 
Early Blood Turnip. 
Long Blood. 
Half Long Blood. 
Egyptian Red Turnip. 



Long Bed Mangel Wurzel. 
White French Sugar. 
Silver or Swiss Chard. 
Eclipse. 
Lentz. 



CULTURE. 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. Sow in drills 
twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about one inch deep. When about 
a month old, thin them out to four or six inches apart. In this latitude beets are 
sown from January till the end of April, and from the middle of July till the middle 
of November ; in fact, some market gardeners sow them every month in the year. 
In the summer and fall, it i 3 well to soak the seeds over night and roll in plaster 
before sowing. 

Extra Early, or Bassaoao, is the 

earliest variety, but not popular on ac- 
count of its color, w^hich is almost white 
when boiled. Earliuess is not of so 
much value here, where there are beets 
sown and brought to the market the 
whole year round. In the North it is 
different, where the first crop of beets 
In the market in spring will bring a bet- 



ter price than the varieties which ma- 
ture later. 
Simon's Early ISed Turnip. 

This is earlier than the Blood Turnip, 
smooth skin and of light red color; 
planted a good deal by the market gar- 
deners about New Orleans. 

Early BBood TMraaip. The most 
poiHilar variety for market purposes as 



FOR THE SOUTHEKN STATES. 



31 



well as family use. It is of a dark red 
color and very tender. This is the prin- 
cipal variety planted for shipping. My 
stock is raised for me from dark selected 
roots, and cannot be excelled. 

JLon^ Blood. Is not quite so tender 
as the foregoing variety ; it is not planted 
at all for the market, and very litth> 
for family use. In the North it is 
chiefly planted for winter, use ; here we 
have Turnip Beets the whole winter 



from the garden ; therefore it has not 
the same value. 

Half Ijonis BSood. A very dark 
red variety of a half long shape ; a good 
kind for family use. 

Eg^yptiaiB Ked Tursoip. This is 
a new variety sent out by "Benary" 
some years ago. It is very early, tender, 
deep red and of Turnip shape. Leaves 
of this variety are smaller than of 
others. The seeds are also much smaller. 




White French Sugar Beet. 



Esyptinn Red Turnip Beet, 



S-2 



RIcfiARD frotscher's aLma:^ac and garden Manual 



I recommend it and consider it a good 
acquisition. The seed of this variety is 
obtained by me from the original source 
and is the finest stocli offered. 

£cH|>se. Anew Beet from Germany, 
very regular, of globular shape. It has 
a small top, is of dark red blood color, 
sweet and fine grained flesh. It comes 
as early as the Egyptian. 

liOiigr Ked I?laiig:el ^tVurzel. This 
is raised for stock ; it grows to a large 
size. Here in the South where stock is 
not stabled during the winter, the rais- 
ing of root QTops is much neglected. 
Being very profitable for its food it 
ought to be more cultivated. 

Wliite French Sug-ar, is used the 
same as the foregoing ; not much 
planted. 

Silver Beet, or Swiss Chard. 
This variety is cultivated for its large 



succulent leaves, which are used for the 
same" purposes as Spinach. It is very" 
popular in the New Orleans market. 

Leaitz. This new strain of Blood 
Turnip Beet originated with one of 
the most prominent market gardeners 
around Philadelphia. This beet, as 
selected and grown by him, has had a 
great reputation, in the surroundings of 
the above place, but the seed has been 
carefully guarded and kept until re- 
cently, when it fell into the hands of a 
seed grower, from whom I have received 
my supply. It is fully as early as the 
Egyptian Beet, but larger and of better 
quality ; it has a fine turnip form with 
smooth roots, dark blood red flesh, 
tender and sweet at all times, never be- 
coming tough and stringy, even when 
old. The cut is an exact representation 
of its shape. Give it a trial. 




BORECOLE, OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-v£rt (Fr.), Gruner Kohl (Ger.^ Breton (Sp.). 
Dwarf Gerisaasi Oreens. A vegetable highly esteemed in the Northern 
part of Europe, but very little cultivated in this country. It requii^s frost to make 
it good for the table. Treated the same as cabbage. 

BROCCOLI. 

Cifou Brocoli (Fr.), Spargel-Kohl (Ger.^ Broculi (Sp.). 
Purple €a|>e. Besembles the Caulilhnver, but not forming such compact 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



33 



heads, and not quite so white, being of a greenish 
east. We raise such fine Cauliflower here that very 
little Broccoli is planted. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety ; 
cultivated the same as Half Early Cauliflower ; fur- 
ther North than New Orleans, where Cauliflower 
does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, 
being hardier, 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Bkuxelles (Fr.), Rosen or Sprossen Kohl 
(Ger.), Breton de Bruselas (Sp.). 

A vegetable cultivated the same as the Cabbage, 
but very little known here. The small heads which 
appear along the uppeL- j)art of the stalk between 
the leaves, make a flne dish when well prepared. 
Should be sown during August and September. 




Brussels Sprouts. 



CABBAGE 



Chou Pomme (Pr.), 
Earlif York. 
Early Large Yoi^k. 
Earhj Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheart. 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Early Drumhead. 
Large Flat Brunawick. 



KoPFKOHL (Ger.), Repollo (Sp.). 

Lnproved Early Summer. 

Improved Large Late Drumhead. 

Frotscher's Superior Late Flat Dutch 

Red Dutch (for pickling). 

Green Globe Savoy. 

Early Dwarf Savoy. 

Drumhead Savoy. 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



During the past "World's Exposition" I exhibited different vegetables as they 
were in season. Many visitors will recollect the fine specimens of Cabbage, Beets, 
Celery, Cauliflower, Lettuce, Cucumbers, etc., they saw there displayed, I received 
the Prize for "Frotscher's Flat Diiteli Cabtoage" and Early Blood Turnip 
Beets. Ten heads of Cabbage, devoid of all outside leaves, weighed one hundred 
and seventy-three pounds. They were raised on Captain Marcy's place, one mile 
below Algiers.— I did not exhibit them for competition, but merely to show to our 
Northern visitors what fine vegetables we have here during the winter, when at 
their homes everything is covered with snow and ice. The Committee of Awards 
on Vegetables gave me the Prize without any solicitation on my part,— they think- 
ing it well merited. (See inside cover.) 

CULTURE. 

Cabbage requires a strong, good soil, and should be heavily manured. To raise 
large Cabbage without good soil and without working the plants well, is an im- 
possibility. Cabbage is sown he^*e almost in every month of the year, but the seed 
for a main crop should be sown from July to September. Some sow earlier, but 
July is time enough. For a succession, seed can be sown till November. The main 
crop for Spring should be sown from end of October to end of November, as stated 
before. The raising of Cabbage for spring has become quite an item of late years ; 
Brunswick should be sown a little earlie^- tha^n the Early Summer,— the latter kind 



34 



EIGHAED FKOTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GAEDEN MANUAL 



not till November, but in a frame, so the young plants can be protected against 
cold weather, which we generally have between December and January. After the 
middle of January, setting out can be commenced with. These early varieties of 
Cabbage require special fertilizing to have them large. Early varieties are sown 
during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very important crop, and one of the 
best paying for the market gardener. It requires more work and attention than 
most people are willing to give, to raise cabbage plarts during the months of July 
and August. I have found, by careful observation, that plants raised in August are 
the surest to headihere. The most successful gardeners in raising cabbage plants 
sow the seeds thinly in seed beds, and water several times during the day ; in fact, 




These three heads of Cahbaiie vrere cro^vn hy M. POPOVICH at Tunisburg, La. 





Early Winningstadt. 



St. Denis, or Chou Bonneiiil. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



35 





Drumhead Savoy, 



Large York. 





Green Globe Savoy. 



Early Flat Dutch. 




Improved Large Late Drumhead. 



Early Large Oxhcart. 




Early York. 



J.arge Flat Brtjuswick, 



Early Dwarf Savoy. 



36 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Early Drumhead. 




Improved Karly yummor. 



the seed-bed is never allowed to get dry from the sowing of the seed till large 
enough to transplant. There is no danger, in doing this, of scalding the plants, as 
many \yould suppose; but on the contrary, the plants thrive well, and so treated, 
will be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-Hies, as they are too often dis- 
turbed during the day. Tobacco stems choi-ped up and scattered between the 
plants and in the walks between the beds, are a preventative against the tly. 

salable on account of being flat. Very 
good variety for family use. 
IGai'ly DruMAliead. A 



Early York. This is an early va- 
riety, but very little grown here except 
for family use. As we have cabbage 
heading \\[) almost the whole year, it 
has not the same value as in Northern 
climates, where the first cabbage in 
spring brings a good price. 

L-arg-e Yorls.. About tvv^o to three 
weeks later than the above, forming 
hard heads ; not grown for the market. 
Eecommended for family use. 

EarJy Siagar Eoaf. Another point- 
ed variety, with spoon-shaped leaves ; 
sown in early spring for an early sum- 
mer cabbage. 

Early Earge OxBieart. An excel- 
lent variety, which is later than the 
Large York, and well adapted for sow- 
ing in fall or early spring. 

EarJy ItViBBiiiBBg-stadt. This is a 
very line solid-heading variety ; pointed 
and of good size, of the same season as 
the Oxheart. It is very good for family 
use. It does not suit the market, as 
no pointed cabbage can be sold to any 
advantage in the Nevv' Orleans market. 

Jersey VTakefield. Very popular 
in the North; but little planted here. 
It is of naediutn size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Diiteli. An intermediate 
variety between the early iioiuted and 
late varieties. It is not, on an average, 
as heavy as the Oxheart or Winning- 
stadt ; but, if raised for the market, more 



similar va- 
riety to the above; a little earlier, and 
not making as many leaves, it can be 
planted close. A good early spring 
ca,bbage. 

Large Fiat BruDisu'ick. This is 
a late German variety, introduced by 
me over twenty years ago. It is an 
excellent variety, and when well headed 
u[), the shape of it is a true type of a 
Premium Flat Dutch Cabbage. It re- 
quires very rich ground if sown for win- 
ter crop, and should be sown early, as it 
is a little more susceptible of frost than 
the Superior Flat Dutch. It is well 
adapted for shipping, being very hard, 
and does not wilt so quick as others. At 
Frenier, along the Jackson R. E. this is 
the kind princi|>ally planted, and is pre- 
ferred over all other varieties. The peo- 
ple living there plant nothing else but 
cabbage, and have tried nearly all high- 
ly recommended varieties, and this is 
their choice. At that place the seeds are 
sown in October and November. The 
bulk of the cabbage raised there is ship- 
ped North in April and May, and is the 
finest which comes to the Chicago 
market. 

Improved Early Suiiiiiier. This 
cabbage is of recent introduction. It is 
not quite so large as the Brunswick; 



fOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



3t 



for fall it can be sowu in Aup^ust; 
for spring, in November and as late 
as January. It heads up very uniform 
and does not produce many outside 
leaves. It is hardier than the Bruns- 
wick, and stands the cold and heat bet- 
ter. The seed I offer is of the best 
strain cultivated, and can be planted 
closer together than the late varieties- 
say about 8000 to the acre. The finest 
crop of this variety (one hundred and 
fifty thousand heads of cabbage) I ever 
saw, V7SLS raised three years ago near the 
city. The grower could commence on 
one end of the row to cut, and continue 
to the end, all well headed. They aver- 
aged about 7 pounds. 

Improved Larg^e Late I>i>iiiii- 
liead. Fine large variety ; should be 
sown early in the fall for winter, or 
during December and January for late 
spring use; it will stand more cold 
weather than the Brunswick. 

!§tiperaor Late Flat Dutch' 
This is the most popular variety for 
winter cabbage, and cultivated by al- 
most every gardener who plants for 
the New Orleans market. My stock is 
of sut^rior quality, and I venture to 
say that seventy-five per cent, of all 
cabbage sold in the New Orleans market 
are of seeds which have been obtained 
from my store. During winter and 
spring, specimens which are brought 



as samples to my establishment, weigh- 
ing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, 
can frequently be seen. In regard to 
the time of planting, see remarks under 
head of "Cabbage" in the directions for 
planting for July. I have tried seed of 
the Flat Dutch from different growers, 
but have found none yet to equal the 
stock I have been selling for years, and 
which is raised for me by contract. 

Red Dutcti. Mostly used for pick- 
ling or salads. Very little cultivated. 

Oreeii ORobe Savoy. Medium 
sized heads, not very hard, but all the 
leaves can be used. This and the fol- 
lowing varieties are of fine flavor, and 
preferred by many over the other kinds. 

Early D^ivarf Savoy. Heads rather 
small, but solid ; leaves very curled 
and succulent; of a dark green color. 
Very fine for family garden. 

Driimhead Savoy. Leaves are 
wrinkled, but not quite so much as the 
two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good 
size with large roundish heads. 

St. Denis, or Clioii Bonneuil. 
This was, at one time, one of the most 
popular varieties grown for this market, 
but during the past few years has not 
done so well as formerly, and is, there- 
fore, planted very little now. It wants 
good ground and high cultivation. It 
does better for spring than for fall. 
Should be sown in November. 



CAULIFLOWER. 

CuouFLEDR (Fr.), Blumenkohl (Ger.), Coliflor (Sp.). 



Extra Earbj Farts. 

Half Earhj Paris. 

Earbj Erfurt 

Le Normands (short-stemmed). 



Early Italian Giant. 
Late Italian Giant. 
Imperial. 
Large Algiers. 



This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well in the vicinity 
of New Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea-coast in the neighborhood 
of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties are of excellent quality, growing to 
large size, and are considered hardier than the German and French varieties. I 
have had specimens brought to my store, raised from seed obtained from me, 
weighing sixteen pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflower should be very rich. 
They thrive best in rich, sandy soil, and require plenty of moisture during the for- 
mation of the head. The Italian varieties should be sown from April till July ; the 
latter month and June is the best time to sow the Early Giant. During August, 
September and October, the Le Normands, Half Early Paris and Erfurt can be 



38 



EICHAED FROTSCHEE'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



sown. The Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as good. 
For spring crop the Italian kinds do not answer, but the Early French and German 
varieties can be sown at the end of December and during January, in a bed pro- 
tected from frost, and may be transplanted into the open ground during February 
and as late as March. If we have a favorable season, and not too dry, they will 
be very fine ; but if the heat sets in soon, the flowers will not attain the same size 
as those obt-ained from seeds sown in fall, and which head during December and 
Januar3\ 

Extra Early Paris. The ear- 
liest variety: heads small, very 
tender. 

Half Early Paris. The most 
popular in the New Orleans market. 
Heads of good size, white and com- 
pact. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is 
of more dwarfish growth than the 
two former. Heads white and of 
good size. Heads with certainty. 

Ee IVorinaiids is a French vari- 
ety, and largely cultivated here. 
It stands more dry weather than 
the other varieties, and has large 
and pure white heads. Not so pop- 
ular as the Half Early Paris in 
this market, but there is no good 

reason why it should not be. as it is an excellent variety in every respect: stands 
the heat better than any other. 

Earg'e Algiers. A French variety of the same season a? the Le Normands. 
but a surer producer. It is one of the best kinds, and has taken the place of other 
second early varieties since it has been introduced. 




Le Normands short-'-Temmefl Cauliflower. 




Milillowcr. 



fOR THfi SOUTHEHN Sf ATES. 



39 



Early Italian Oiant. Very 
large line sort, not quite so late as 
the Late Italian, and almost as 
large. The heads are quite large, 
white and compact, and of delicious 
flavor. I recommend it to all who 
have not tried it. When sown at 
the proper season, it will head with 
certainty, and will not fail to give 
satisfaction. 

L.ate Italian Oiant. This is 
the largest of all the Cauliflowers. 
It is grown to a considerable extent 
in the neighborhood of New Or- 
leans. It is very large and com- 
pact ; should not be sown later than 
June, as it takes from seven to 
nine months before it heads. 

Imperial. A variety from France, very similar to the Le Nprmands, per- 
haps a little earlier ; very good, I recommend it highly. 

CARROT. 

Caeotte (Fr.), Moehre or Gelbe Kuebe (Ger.), Zanahoria (Sp,). 
Early Scarlet Horn. St. Valerie. 

Half Long Scarlet French. Half Long Luc. 

Improved I^ong Orange. Danver's Intermediate. 

Long Red without core. 
Requires a sandy loam, well manured the previous year, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can be worked 
after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them broad-cast, and often the 
roots are small from being crowded too much together. 
Early Scarlet Horn. A short. riety from France, which is of cylindri- 




Large Alsriers. 



Stump-rooted variety of medium size, 
very early and of fine flavor. Not culti- 
vated for the market. 

Half L.ong^ French Scarlet. This 
is the most popular variety, and exten- 
sively grown for the market as well as 
for family use. It is a little later than 
the Early Horn, but much larger ; bright 
scarlet in color, and of fine flavor. 

Half Long- Euc. This is a new va- 
riety from France. It is as early as any 
previously mentioned, but stump-rooted 
and larger. It is very smooth and of a 
fine color. 

Improved L.ong: Orang^e. This is 
an old variety ; roots long and of deep 
orange color. It is not much cultivated 
in this section, and the flavor is not so 
fine as that of the two preceding kinds. 
Valuable for field culture. 

I^ong Red, without core. A new va- 



cal shape, very smooth, bright scarlet 
color, and of fine flavor ; has no heart 
or core. It is not quite so early as the 
Half Long, but more productive. Con- 
sider it a flrst-class variety for the table, 
and one that will come into general cul- 
tivation when better known. 

St. Valerie. A new variety from 
France, bright red in color; a little lar- 
ger and longer than the Half Long 
French, and stronger in the leaves. 
This is one of the finest carrots, and 
will in the course of time take the place 
of the Half Long. It is very smooth. 

Danver's. An intermediate Ameri- 
can variety of recent introduction. It 
is of a bright orange color ; very smooth ; 
symmetrically formed ; somewhat 
stump-rooted like the Half Long Luc. 
It will produce more in weight to the 
acre than any other Half Long variety. 



40 



RICHARD FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 






Earlv Scarlet Horn CarroT. 



Half Loii.q: I uc Carrot. 



Plalf Long French. 
Scarlet Carrot. 





Lonsr Rod C;irror without a 



St. Valerie ( arrot. 



Daiivers Tntcrmediat}. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



41 



CELERY. 

Celeri (Fr.), Sellerie (Ger.), 
Apio (Sp.). 

Large White Solid. 

Perfection HearticeU. 

Turnip- Rooted. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. 

Cutting or Soup. 
Sow ill May and June for 
early transplantirig, and iu 
August and September for a 
later eroj;. Sow thinly and 
shade during the hot months 
When the ])lants are six in- 
ches high, transplant into 
trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide and two and 
a half feet apart, made very 
rich by digging in rotten 
manure. Plants should be 
from 6 to 8 inches apart Pcrkction lU utnoii cdo 

When planted out during the hot months, the trenches requi 
which is generally done by spreading cotton cloth over them : 
answer the same purpose. Celery re- '^X rL Vh' 
quires plenty of moisture, and watering 
with soapsuds, or liquid manure, vviil 
benefit the plants a great deal. When 
tail enough, it should be earthed up to 
blanch to make it fit for the table. 




re to be 
latann 



shaded, 
iers will 





Dv.arf. Larpc Ribbed Tolory 



Lurjre Whit-i ^wli'.l ''olery. 



42 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMAI^AC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



JLarge White Solid. This variety used to be planted exclusively, but since 
the introduction of half dwarf and dwarf kinds has been dropped, more so by mar- 
ket gardeners. It is crisp, but not as fine flavored as the following kinds. 

Perfection Heartwell. This variety is in size between the Large White 
Solid and Dwarf kinds ; it is of excellent 
quality, very thick, and when blanched «■ 

the heart is of a beautiful golden yellow 

color ; preferable to the White Solid, and ^ ^« -i^^-^^^iM. .s^^^>^'' '^'..J^^^ ^-, ^>.. 

one of the best kinds ever introduced. 
Celcriac or Turuip-Kooted Cel- 
ery, is very popular in some parts of 
Europe, but hardly cultivated here. It 
should be sown in the fall of the year, 
and transplanted six inches apart, in 
rows one foot apart. When the roots 
have obtained a good size, they are 
boiled, scraped off, sliced and dressed 
with vinegar, etc., as a salad. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. This kind 
was brought here several years ago from 
France. It is short, but very thick- 
ribbed, solid and of line flavor. The 
best dwarf variety for this section. 

Celery for Soup. This is sown in 
the spring of the year, broad-cast, to be 
used for seasoning, the same as Parsley. 




Celcriac or Turnip-Rooted Celery. 

CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil (Fr.). Kerbelkraut (Ger.). 
An aromatic plant used a .good deal for seasoning, especially in oyster soup, 
and is often cut between Lettuce when served as a salad. In the North this vege- 
table is very little knowm, but in this section there is hardly a garden where it is 
not found. " Sow broad-cast during fall for winter and spring, and in January and 
February for summer use. 

COLLARDS. 

A kind of cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used the same as 
other cabbage. Not so po[)ular as in former years, and very little planted in this 
vicinitv. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet (Fr. ), Acker Salat (Ger.), Valeriana (Sp.). 
Broad-leaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is used as salad 
during the winter and early spring months. Should be sown broad-cast or in 
drills nine inches apart during fall and w^inter. 

CORN. 

INDIAN. 

Welschkorn (Ger.' 



Mais (Fr.j. 
Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. 
Adam's Extra Early . 
Early Sugar or Sweet. 
StoweVs Evergreen Sugar. 
Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 
Early Yellow Canada. 
Large WIdte Flint. 

Plant in hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and thin out to two 
or three. Where the ground is strong the Adam's Extra Early and Crosby's Sugar 



, Maiz iSp.). 
BlunVs Prolific Field. 
Improved Learning. 
Golden Beauty. 
Champion White Pparl. 
Mosby's Prolific. 
Hickory King. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



43 



can be planted in hills two and a half feet apart, as these two varieties are more 
dwarfish than the other kinds. Plant for a succession from February to June. 



£xtra Early, or Crosby's Dwarf | 

Siig^ar. This is a very early variety 
and of excellent quality. Ears small, 
but very tender. It is not so extensively 
planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra Early, the most 
popular variety with market gardeners 
for first planting. It has no fine table 
{{ualities, but as it grows to a good size, 
and is matured in about forty days from 
time of planting, it meets with ready 
sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

Early S^ug^ar, or New England. 
A long eight-rowed variety, which suc- 
ceeds the Extra Early sorts. Desirable 
variety. 



Stowel's Evergreen iSug^ar. This 
is the best of all Sugar Corn. It is an 
early Corn, but the ears are of large size, 
and are well filled. It remains green 
longer than any otiier variety, and is 
quite productive. The cultivation of this 
excellent cereal, as well as all other Sug- 
ar Corn, is much neglected, yet why 
people will plant common field-corn for 
table use, considering size instead of 
quality, I can not understand. 

Oolden Dent Oourd 8eed. Afield 
variety which is very productive at the 
North. It makes a very fine Corn South, 
but has to be planted here several years 
in succession before it attains perfection, 
as during the first year the ears are not 




Improved Learning. 



44 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND. GARDEN MANUAL 



well covered by the husk, which is the 
case with all Northern varieties. When 
selected and planted here for a few 
years, it becomes acclimated and makes 
an excellent Corn, with lar;2;e, fine ears, 
grain deep and cob of medium size. 

Early Yellow Canada. A long 
eight-rowed variety. It is very early, 
and is planted in both the field and gar- 
den. It does weJl here. 

Lai'i^c IVIiite Flint. A very popu- 
lar variety with gardeners and ama- 
teurs. It is planted here for table use 
principally, but like the Golden Dent, 
makes an excellent kind for field cultuie 
after it has been planted here for two or 
three years. 

BlunrsProime Field Corn. This 
is a very excellent variety, either for the 
field or for the table. It is very prolific, 
producing from four to six ears of corn 
They are of medium size, but well filled 
and heavy. It is second earl^^ This 
variety has done better than any othei, 
and, being of Southern origin, it seems 
to be better adapted to our climate. I 
recommend it as an early yielding Corn 
for field culture. 

Improved 'Learning'. An extia 
early variety, sold by me for the first 
time six years ago. It is not hard and 
flinty, but sweet and nutritious, making 
excellent feed and fine meal. The ears 
are large and handsome, with deep large 
grains, deep orange color and small red 
cob. It is very productive. The shucks 
cover the ear better than any Northern 
or Western variety I have ever tried. It 
is adapted to a variety of soils, and pro- 
duces well on heavy or light soil ; it has 
shown itself as very reliable. 

$j«o]€len BeaiBty. This variety is the 
handsomest of all yellow corn ; the eai •, 
are of a perfect shape, long, and filled 
out to the extreme end of the cob. The 
grains are not of a fiinty type, neither 
are they so soft as to be greatly shrivel! 
ed, as in the Golden Dent. Golden 
Beauty matures early, ripening in eighb\ 
days from planting, and suri^asses all 
in size and beauty of grain. 

Cliagnpiorfl l>Viiitc PearS. This is 
a very handsome white corn. Tiie gram 



is pure white, exceedingly heavy and 
long, two of which will span the cob,, 
which is small. Being medium in size 
of stalk it can be planted much thicker 
than a large Corn, and at the same time 
bear a full sized ear. The originator has 
established in Champion White Pearl 
Corn a short, thick stalk, with the ear 




J in ^u^ 11, 01 E\ti 1 Early 

\ w J n-rl uifl Corn ^u^nr Corn. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



45 



growing low upon it, which isanadvau- 
ta.ge in stormy weather. 

Mosby's Pi'oUJlic Corsi. This is a 
Soutliern Corn, and is recommended for 
general crop. The originator of this 



variety says: "This corn is a cross be- 
tween two widely different varieties. It 
is ]:>urely white; small cob,' deep, full 
grain, neither too hai"d nor too soft. It. 
will stand crowding in the drill as close 




Golden Beauty Corn. Hickory KingCoru. 



46 



KICHAKD FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



again as any other variety. Ears of 
medium size, but long. It stands the 
drought better than ordinary corn." 
Should be planted early. 

Hickory King:. This New Field 
Corn was introduced here by me two 
year ago. It has proven itself all that was 
claimed for it. It is the Largest Grained 
and Smallest Cobbed Pure White Dent 



Corn in the World. It is very early, and 
comes in succession to the Adams Early. 
The ears are from seven to nine inches in 
length, and are generally borne from 
three to five to a stalk, making it very 
productive. The ears are well covered 
by the shucks ; a great consideration in 
Field Corn planted in the South. 



CRESS. 

Cresson (Fr.), Kresse (Ger.), Berro (Sp.). 

Used for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad-cast or in drills six 
inches apart. 

Curled or Pepper Orass. Not much used in this section. 

Broad-L-eaved. This variety is extensively cultivated for the market. It is 
sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resemble Water Cress; a variety 
which does not well succeed here. Is considered a very wholesome dish. 

CUCUMBER. 

Concombre (Fr.), Gurke (Ger.), Pepino (Sp.). 
Improved Earhj White Spine, Earhj Cluster. 

Earhj Frame. ^^^ Orleans Market. 

Long Green Turkey. Gherkin, or Burr (for pickling.) 

Cucumbers need a rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet apart ; the 
hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, and eight to ten seeds 



M^ j^ 





New'Orleans Market. 



Imp'd Early White Spine. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES 




West ludiii Gherkin. 



Earlv Frame. 



Early Cluster. 



should be planted in each hill, and covered about one-half inch deep; when well 
up, thin out to four plants in the hill till the vines meet. When the spring is dry 
the plants have to be watered, else they do not keep in bearing long, They can 
be planted from March till July. A great many cucumbers are planted here in 
February, or even sooner, and are protected by small boxe.-, with a pane of glass 
on top. These boxes are removed during the day, and put back in the evening. 
When days are cloudy and cold, the plants are kept covered. 

New Orleans iflsirket. This is a va- 
riety selected from an imported forcing 
cucumber introduced by me. It is good 
for forcing or open ground ; very pro- 
ductive, keeps its gr^en color, and has 
few vines. This kind can not be ex- 



Improved Early "W^liite Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It is 
of medium size, light green, covered 
with white spines, and turns white when 
ripe. The best kind for shipping. Of 
late years it is used by most gardeners 
for forcing as well as outdoor culture. 
It is very productive. 

Early Frame. Another early va- 
riety, but not so popular as the fore- 
going kind. It is deep green in color, 
but turns yellow very quickly ; there- 
fore gardeners do not plant it much. 

Long- Crreen Turkey. A long va- 
riety attaining a length of from fifteen 
to eighteen inches when well grown. 
Very fine and productive. 

Early Cluster. Early, short and 
prickly; it bears in clusters. 



celled for shipping, as it produces very 
perfect cucumbers and but few culls; 
the largest growers of cucumbers for 
shipping about here plant none but this 
variety. It is quite different from the 
Long White S[)ine offered by some. 

West India Oiierkin. This is an 
oval variety, small in size. It is used 
for picklijag when young and tender. 
When grown, to its full size it can be 
stewed with meat. In fact, this is the 
only use made of it about New Orleans. 



THE FOLLOWING MAY BE OF SOME IMPORTANCE TO THOSE WHO 
CONTEMPLATE THE RAISING OF CUCUMBERS. ^ 

The Cucumber is a very important crop for the Southern Gardener and 
Truck-farmer. In fact it has been the best paying crop shipped from here for the 
last years. To give some information on the cultivation I publish on the following 
page a letter Avhich is written by one of the most extensive and successful growers 
of this vegetable in this neighborhood; he plants exclusively the Long Green 
White Spine or New Orleans Market. 



48 



RICHARD FROTSCHEU'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Nine Mile Point, Jefferson Parish, 
Sept. 17th, 1888. 

Mr. RICHARD FROTSCHER, 

New Orleans. 

Dear Sir: 

In compliance with your 
request, "to give you a description of 
my practice in growing Cucumbers," I 
send you this. Old grov>'ers will not find 
anything new in it, but to begin aers it 
may be of some service. 

There are three methods in general 
use by growers here. They are forcing 
in hot- beds, growing in cold frames, and 
the field crop. Of the first I have little 
to sav here ; it requires a plentiful supply 
of fresh stable manure, or other heating 
material, and so obliges one to be located 
where such can be had in abundance, 
and in my opinion, to be uniformly 
successful, requires also skilled labor. 

My practice for growing in the cold 
frames is as follows. I make a good hot 
bed. ( lot' doiog this you have given clear, 
and am[)le instructions, in your Alma- 
nac and Garden Manual) make the beds 
large enough to hold three five inch 
pots for every sash you have in your cold 
frames; this will allow for one-third 
dying. The hot bed should be made the 
last week in December ; in a week after, 
place your pots in the beds, fill the pots 
»with a rich light soil, in this sow your 
seed, seven or eight in each pot. cover 
a little less than half an inch deep, let 
the ground on toi> of the pots get dry 
before watering, then water freely, close 
up the sash and keei) it closed until the 
seed begins to come up, which it will do 
in less than three days. From this time 
on, the hot bed must be carefully 
watched, plenty of air given on bright 
days, even pulling Ihe sash entirely off 
for a few hours in the middle of warm 
clear days. In cold cloudy weather keep 
them closed, the young plants are, at 
this stage, very liabe to damp off. To 
prevent 1 his, give plenty of air when tlie 
weather is good ; if it is wet and cold, 
and the sash cannot be opened, sprinkle 
plenty of air slacked lime in the frame. 
Water only wdien dry, and then only in 
fair weather. When the plants are well 



up, thin out to three in a pot. After the 
second rough leaf is formed, pinch off 
the top bud, this will make them stocky. 
In four weeks after sowing the seeds, the 
plants should be fit to set out in the cold 
frames. The ground in the frames 
should be made rich and light, loose 
and well dug over with the spade. It is 
important to prepare the soil in the cold 
frames well, or a poor crop will be the 
result. 

The transplanting from the hot-bed to 
the cold frame should be done on a warm 
calm day ; knock the plants out of the 
pots carefully to avoid breaking the ball. 
Plant two hills under each sash, at about 
two feet apart, close up the sash as fast 
as planted, and do not water until next 
day ; do not give any air till the plants 
recover the transplanting. As you will 
now have to depend on the heat of the 
sun to keep your plants growing, do not 
open your sashes too wide, open them 
only on fine days, and then open them 
late in the morning, and close them 
early in the evening. Two or three 
weeks of this treatment will bring the 
plants well forward, and as the weather 
gets warmer, give more air, stir the 
ground with a hoe to keep it loose, water 
plentifully when needed. By the first 
of March they should be setting fruit 
freely. From this time on, the sash can 
be pulled off entirely during the day, 
and put on again at night ; as the weather 
gets warmer give plenty of water, in fact 
keep the ground almost wet. Cut off all 
cucumbers as fast as they get large 
enough for the market; do not leave 
any on the vines to get old, as it will 
have the effect of retarding the growth 
of the young fruit; thus making the 
vines less productive. 

For the field crop, we plant the seed 
in strawberry boxes ; in cold frames, the 
boxes are four inches each way, width,- 
length and depth. This is the best 
size ; they are without bottoms ; they are 
packed in the frame close together, filled 
with a good soil and 5 or 6 seed planted 
in each box ; water, shut the sash and 
keep it shut until the seed begins to come 
up. Then from this on give plenty of 



FOB, THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



49 



air in good weather, water freely when 
dry, and thin out to three in a box ; in 
about four weeks they will be lit to plant 
out in the Held. Have the ground where 
they are to be planted, well plowed, 
fine and in good order ; open the rows 
eight feet apart with a plow. To take 
the plants out of the frames, run a sharp 
spade just under the bottom of the boxes 
ro cut them loose from the bed, lift them 
on the spade and place them close to- 
gether in a cart ; pack them tight in the 
bottom of the cart to prevent jolting 
about in hauling to the field. Drive the 
cart on the ground to be planted, take 
the boxes one by one carefully out of 
the cart, and place them in the furrow 
already opened, about two feet apart; 
have a hand follow with a sharp knife, 
and cut down one corner of the box, and 
remove it in one piece, without breaking 
the ball of earth about the roots of 
the plants. Much depends upon this 
being carefully done ; let hands enough 
follow with hoes to fill up the furrow 
with soil, drawing plenty of fine dirt to 
the roots of the plants. They must be 
watered if necessary. The after-treat- 
ment will be to kee[) the ground about 
the [)lant& and between the rows loose 
and fine with the cultivator and hoe. 
Just before the vines begin to run, say 
in ten days after planting, bar off close 



to the plants with the plow, and in the 
furrow on both sides of the plants scat- 
ter a small handful of cotton seed meal 
or other good fertilizer ; cover this with 
the plow, and plow out the middles; 
keep the ground loose around the plants, 
being careful not to disturb the vines at 
any time, and when the vines cover the 
ground no further cultivation is neces- 
sary. By this method we generally get 
fruit three weeks earlier than from seed 
planted in the field. I need not tell you 
thatearliness in truck-farming is almost 
everything. The time for planting the 
seed in the boxes for the crop will de- 
pend on the season, locality, etc. This 
much is certain, you can keep the plants 
in the boxes for only four, or at the 
most five weeks- after planting the seed. 
After that time they get too large to 
transplant safely. The only guide is to 
use our own judgment and plant the 
seed four weeks before we expect the 
last frost in the spring. 

I have written this plainly, and de- 
scribed my practice so minutely, because 
I know from experience how hard it 
sometimes is to get from books, etc., a 
practical idea of how to do anything 
that we have little or no previous knowl- 
edge of. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Wivr. Nelson. 



EGG-PLANT. 

Aubergine (Fr.), Eierpflanze (Ger.), Beeengena (Sp.). 
The seed should be sown in hot-beds in the early part of January. When a 
couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another frame, so that the 





Larse Purple Egg-Plant.. 



50 



RICHARD FEOTSCflER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



plants may become strong and robust. When warm enough, generally during 
March, the plants can be placed in the open ground, about tv>^o and a half feet 
apart. This vegetable is very popular in the South, and extensively cultivated. 



liarge Purple, or New Orleans 
Market* This is the only kind grown 
here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a 
dark purple color and very productive. 
Southern grown seed of this, as of a 
good many other "tropical or sub-trop- 
ical vegetables, is preferable to North- 
ern seed, as it will germinate more 



readily, and the plant will last longer 
during the hot season. 

Early Dwarf Ovol. This variety 
is very early and productive ; the fruit is 
not so large as the New Orleans Egg- 
Plant, but equal in flavor. For market 
it will not sell as well as the former : 
desirable for family garden. 



ENDIVE. 

Chicoree (Fr.), Endivien (Ger. ), Endi^ia (Sp.). 

A salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for the market, prin- 
cipally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot apart, and when the plants 
are well up, thinned out till about eight inches apart. Or it can be sown broad- 
cast thinly and transplanted the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large 
enough, say about eight inches long, tie tliem u[) for blanching, to make them fit 
for the table. This can only be done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves are apt 
to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, as if sown sooner, the 
plants will run into seed very early. Sow for a succession during the spring and 
summer months. For winter use sow in September and October. 

Oreen €«rled. Is the most desir- 
able kind, as it stands more heat than 
the following sort, and is the favorite 
market variety. 

Extra Fine Curled. Does not grow 
quite so large as the foregoing, and is 
more apt to decay when tb.ere is a wet 
summer. Better adapted for v/inter. 

Broad-Eeaved, or Escarolle. 
Makes a fine salad when well grown -„ ., -^ , , -^i^-^-^^Mi, 

and blanched, especially for summer. Green curied Endh- 




GARLIC 



Oarlic. There is more Garlic grown 
in Louisiana than in any other State, or 
all States together. It is a staple product 
of the lower Parishes. It is raised 
for home consumption and shijtping. It 
is used for flavoring stews, roasts, and 
various other dishes. People from the 
South of Euroi)e use much more than 
the inhabitants of the United States.— It 
should be planted in October and 
November, in drills two to three feet 
apart, about six inches in the drills and 



one inch deep. The distance between the 
rows depends upon the mode of cultiva- 
tion ; if planted in the garden, a foot be- 
tween the rows is sufficient. It is culti- 
vated like Onions ; in the Spring they are 
taken up and plaided together in a string 
by the tops. One of these strings con- 
tains about from 50 to 70 heads in double 
rows ; they are then stored or rather 
hung up in a dry, airy place. They keep 
from 6 to 8 months. 



FOR THE SOUTHEllN STATES. 



51 



KOHL-RABI, or TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navet (Fr.), Kohl-Kabi (Gerj, Col de Nabo (Sp.). 
This vegetable is very i)Oi)ular with the Europeau population of this city, and 
largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or prepared in the same manner as 
Cauliflower. For late fall and winter use 
it should be sown from the end of July 
till the middle of October ; for spring use 
during January and February. When 
the young j)lants are one month old 
transplant them in rows one foot apart, 
and about the same distance in the rows. 
They also grow finely if sown broad-cast 
and thinned out when young, so that 
the plants are not too crowded ; or, they 
may be sown in drills, and cultivated 
the same as liuta Bagas. 

Early lH^liite Tienaia. The finest 
variety of all, and the only kind I keep. 
It is early, forms a smooth bulb, and has 
few small leaves. The so-called large 
White or Green is not desirable. 



LEEK. 

Poieeau (Fr.), Laugh (Ger.j, Puero (Sp.). 

A species of Onion, highly esteemed 
for flavoring soups. Should be sown 
broad-cast and transplanted, when 
about six to eight inches high, into rows 
a foot apart, and six inches apart in the 
rows. Should be planted at least four 
inches deep. They require to be well 
cultivated in order to secure large roots. 
Sow in October for winter and spring- 
use, and in January and February, for 
summer. 

LiStrse Loudon Flag-. Is the most 
desirable kind, and the most generally 
grown. 

Large Care ntan. This is a new 
French variety which grows to a very 
large size. 




Early White Vienna Kohl-Rabi 



Large London Flag Leek. 



LETTUCE. 

Laitue (Fr.), Lattich (Ger.j, Lechuoa (Sp.). 
Early Cabbage, or Wliite Butter -Head. White Paris Coss. 

Imjjroved Royal Cabbage. Ferpignan. 

Brown Dutch Cabbage. New Orleans Improved Large Passion. 

Drumhead Cabbage. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market gardener. Of course 
it takes a great deal of labor to prodi^ce this vegetable during our hot summer 



52 



RICHARD FROTSCHEE'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



months. For directions how to sprout the seed during that time, see "Work for 
June." The richer and better the ground the larger the head will be. No finer 
Lettuce is grown anywhere else than in New Orleans during fall and spring. The 
seed should be sown broad-cast, when large enough, planted out in rows a foot 
apart, and from eight to ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger 
than others ; for instance, Butterhead will not require as much space as Drumhead 
or Perpignan. 




Dramliead Cabbage Lettuce. 




Improved Royal Cabbagj Lettuce. 




Earlv Cabbasre or A\liite Butter. 




Perpignan Lettuce. 




White Paris Coss Lettuce. 



Early Cabtoage, or T%^liite Bai- 
ter. An early variety, forming a solid 
head, but not quite so large as some 
others. It is the best kind for family 
use, to sow during fall and early spring, 
as it is very early and of go jd flavor. 

Improved Royal Cabbage. This i 
is the most popular variety in this State. 
Heads light green, of large size, and 
about two weeks later than the White 
Butter. It is very tender and crisp ; can 
be sown later in the spring than the 
foregoing kind, and does not run into 
seed so quickly. 

Brown Butcli Cabbage. A very 
hard kind, forms a solid head ; not so 



popular as many other kinds ; good for 
winter. 

DrasMbead Cabba§^e. An excel- 
lent spring variety, forming large heads, 
the outer leaves curled. 

\%^hife Paris Coss, This is very 
popular with the New Orleans market 
gar-leners, as it is the favorite with the 
French population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large, fine heads, partic- 
ularly in the spring of the year. 

Perpii^naii. A fine German variety 
which forms lars'e. light green hearls. 
and which stands the^heat better than 
the Eoyal. It is much cultivated for the 
market, as it thrives well when sown 
during the latter end of spring. 



I 



fOR 'tHfi SOUTHERN Sf ATE9. 



53 



New Orleans Improved 
L<ai'g:e Passion. This is a 
large Cabbage Lettuce intro- 
duced by me from California ; 
it attains a large size, grows 
slowly, but heads very hard. 
It does better here during late 
autumn and winter than in 
summer, as it cannot stand 
the heat. If sown late in the 
fall and transplanted during 
winter, it grows to very large 
heads, hard and firm. It is 
the kind shipped from here 
iu the spring, and cannot be 
surpassed for tliat ]>urpose. 




MELON. 

MUSK OE CANTELOUPE. 

Eo/rhj White Japan. 
Persian or Ca^.saha. 
New Orleans Market. 



Osage. 

Netted Nutmeg. 

Netted Citron. 

Pine Apple. 

Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich enough, a couple 
of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into each hill, which ought to be 
from five to six feet apart ; drop ten or twelve seeds, and when the plants have two 
or three rough leaves, thin out to three or four plants. Canteloupes are cultivated 
very extensively in the neighborhood of New Orleans ; the quality is very fine and 
far superior to those raised in the North. Some gardeners plant during February 




Note.— The above cut represents the New Orleans Melon; it has been taken from a common speci- 
men grown by one of my customers, who raises the seed of this vai'iety for me. 



54 



MCSaEI) fEOTSCHEE'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANI7AL 



and cover with boxes, the same as described for Cucumbers, 
ripenins:, too much rain will impair the flavor of the fruit. 

Osagre Musk Melon. Novelty from 
last year. This variety is cultivated 
largely for the Chicago Market. It is 
small and does not look ver^^ attractive, 
but is of excellent flavor. Eecommend 
it highly for family use or for shipping 
West. It will not sell well in this mar- 
ket until its tine eating qualities are 
better known. People here are accus- 
tomed to roughly netted melons, such 
as the New Orleans Market. The Osage 
is smooth, very slightly netted. 

Netted Nutmeg Melon. Small 
oval melon, roughly netted, early, and 
of fine flavor. 

Netted Citron Cantelonpe. This 
variety is larger than the foregoing kind ; 
it is more rounded in shape, of medium 
size and roughly netted. 

Pine Apple Cantelonpe. A me- 
dium sized early variety, oval in shape, 
and of very fine flavor. 

Early Tf^hite Japan Cante- 
lonpe. An early kind, of creamish 
white color, very sweet, and of medium 
size. 

Persian or Cassaba. A large va- 
riety, of oval shape and delicate flavor. 
The rind of this kind is very thin, which 
is a disadvantage in handling, and pre- 
vents it from being planted tor the mar- 
ket. Very fine for family use. 

Neicir Orleans Market. A large 
species of the citron kind. It is exten- 
sively grown for this market; large in 
size, very roughly netted and of luscious 
flavor; different altogether from the 
Northern Netted Citron, which is earlier 
but not so fine in flavor, and not half 
the size of the variety grown here. The 
New Orleans Market cannot be excelled 



When Melons are 




Osage Melon. 

by any other variety in the world. In a 
favorable season it is a perfect gem. I 
have tried it alongside of varieties prais- 
ed at the North, §uch as are brought out 
every year, — but none of them could 
compare with the New Orleans Market. 
As for some years past the seeds were 
scarce I had some grown North, but 
they lost their tine qualities, size and 
flavor. It requires a Southern sun to 
bring the seed to perfection. Small va- 
rieties of melons will improve in size if 
cultivated here for a number of years, 
and if care is taken that no Cucumbers, 
Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are culti- 
vated in the vicinity. If the best and 
earliest specimens are selected for seed, 
in three or four years the fruit will be 
large and fine. 



Melon d'Eau (Tr.), 
Mountain Siceet. 
Mountain Sprout. 
Ice- Cream ( Wlute Seeded.) 
Orange. 
Rattle Snake. 
Cuban Queen. 

Water Melon will srrow and 



MELON. 

WATEE. 

Wasseemelone iGer.). Sandia (Sp. ). 
i Mammoth Iron Clad. 

I Pride of Georrna. 

Kolb Gem. 
Flo7-ida-s Favorite. 
Oemler'^ Triumph. 
^ Seminole. 

produce in places where Canteloupe will not do 



well. The soil for this plant should be light and sandy. Plant in hills about eight 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



55 



feet apart, eight to twelve seeds in a hill ; when the plants are well up thin out to 
three. The plants should be hoed often, and the ground between the hills kept 
clean till the vines touch. 

Mountain S^'eet. 

This was once a very 
popular variety; it is of 
oblongshape, flesh bright 
scarlet, and of good fla- 
vor. It is very produc- 
tive. 

Mountain Sprout. 
This is similar in the 
shape to the foregoing 
variety, but rather later, 
it is light green with 
irregular stripes of darlc 
green. Flesh blight scar- 
let. 

Ice-Crcain. (Vv'hite 
Seeded.) A medium sized 
variety of excellent qual- 
ity. It is early and very 
productive. Being thin 
in the rind it is not so well 
adapted for the market 
as the other kinds ; not- 
withstanding this, it is 
grown exclusively by 
some for that, on account 
of its earliness. It has 
come into general culti- 
vation more and more 
every year, as it is very 
sweet, and sells readily 
in the market. 

Oran§re. Quite a dis- 
tinct variety from the 
others. The rind can be 
peeled off the same as the skin of an 
orange. It is of medium size, fair quali- 
ty. Very little cultivated. 

RattBe Snake. An old Southern 
variety which has come into notice of 
late years. It is of large size, light 
green, with large dark stripes, and is 
identical with the Gipsey. Fine market 
variety. It stands transportation better 
than most other kinds: has been the 
standard market variety till the Kolb's 
Gem was introduced. However, it always 
will remain a favorite with market-gar- 
deners. Tlu^ seed I offer of this variety, 
is grown for me by one of the best 




Cuban Q.ueen. 

growers in Georgia. It is of the purest 
st^'ain that can be found. 

Cuban <|t»^^n* A striped variety ; 
highly recommended by Northern 
seedsmen ; said to reach from fifty to 
seventy pounds. Sweet and of delicate 
flavor ; it does not grow as large here as 
said it does North. 

Maniniotli Iron Clad. A new 
variety; highly recommended North. 
It did not do as well as Southern raised 
seed. I have the seed now grown in 
Florida, and, no doubt, it will give bet- 
ter satisfacton. 

Pride of Oeorg^ia. A new Melon 



.56 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC ANt> GARDEN MANUaL 



from Georgia, of excellent quality; at- 
tains a large size when well cultivated. 
A very good variety for family use. 

Kolb Oein. Only a few years since 
this variety has been introduced, but 
the shipping qualities are so good, 
that the bulk of melons raised for the 
market are of that kind. Flesh crimson, 
very thin but tough rind ; fine flavor and 
full of flesh, no hollow in the middle. 
It is the heaviest melon for its size. 
What I offer are Southern grown seeds, 
which stand the sun better and produce 
larger and more Melons than Northern 
grown seeds. 




Ocnilev's Triumph. 




Mammoth Iron f^lad. 




Florida's Favurltc. 



roR The soUtheeN states. 



Florida's Favorite. This variety 
was introduced three years ago. It origi- 
nated with W. M. Girardeau, of Monti- 
cello, Fla. It is an excellent variety, 
very i)rolific, earlier than the Kolb Gem, 
Rattlesnake or Pride of Georgia, and 



very fine for the table. It is not as good 
for shipping as the Kolb Gem, or Rattle- 
snake ; it is of medium size, colored with 
light and dark green stripes alternately, 
flesh deep red, deliciously sweet, very 
firm and cris|). One of the best Melons. 




Kolb Gem. 



^P^*7 ' 



':• ~,%^l$i^^^^^ 



58 



RICHARD FROTSOHEr's ALMAJ^^AC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Oeniler^s Triumph. This Melon 
originated on the borders of the Black 
Sea, in Eussia. The seeds are so 
diminutive that a No. 6 thimble will 
hold 55 of them, whereas it holds only 7 ' 
of those of our ordinary water melon I 
seeds, hence they can be swallowed ; 
without inconvenience. It is very early j 
and very productive. In shape it is a | 
short oval, weighing about 15 lbs., more 
or less. The color is a dark mottled ' 



green, and that of the flesh a dark red 
with an edging of orange yellow. It has 
no light colored or tasteless core. Its 
flavor is very sweet. Good for family use. 
Seminole. Novelty of last year. A 
very early Melon, oblong in shape, of 
two colors, some gray and others light 
green, resembling the Ice Cream, but 
larger in .size. It is fine flavored and 
very productive. 



MUSTARD 

MouTARDE iFr. !. Senf iGer.l. Mostaza (Sp.). 

Wiite or Yellow Seeded. \ Large- Lear ed. Curled. 

Chinese very large Cabbage- Leaved. 

This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and is sown broad-cast 
during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the same as spinach, or boiled with 
meat as greens. The White or Tellow Seeded is very little cultivated, and is used 
chiefly for medical purposes, or pickling. The large-leaved or Curled has black 
seed, a distinct kind from the Noilhern or European variety. The seed is raised 
in Louisiana. It makes very large leaves : cultivated more and more every year. 

leaved or the large curled, but will stand 
longer before going to seed. 

New Golden Leaved. This variety 
is of recent introduction. The smooth 
leaves are very light green, almost yel- 
low, from which the name. It is of good 
flavor, and when prepared for the table 
cannot be distinguished from Spinach. 



the favorite kind here, sown largely for 
the market. Leaves are pale green, large 
and curled or scalloped on the edges. 

Chinese Very I^arg^e Ciibbage- 
L<eaved. This is a European variety, 
with ligiit green very large leaves. It 
has not the same taste as the large- 



POU I'HE SoU'fHfiRN Sl'ATfiS. 



59 



NASTURTIUM. 

Capucine (Fr.), Indianische Kresse (Ger.;, Capuchina (Sp.). 
Tall. I Bivarf. 

Planted here only for ornament. (For description, see List of Climbing 
Plants.) 

OKRA. 

Green TaU- Growing. | Dwarf Green. | White Velvet. 

This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no garden, whether small 
or large, is without it. It is used in making "Gumbo," a dish the Creoles of 
Louisiana know how to prepare better than any other nationality. It is also boiled 
in salt and water, and served with vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very 
wholesome dish. Should not be planted before the ground Is warm in spring as the 
seeds are apt to rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, and 
when up, thin out, and leave one or two plants every twelve or fifteen inches. 

Tall Orowing-. This is the variety Dwarf l*Vliite, Similar to the fore- 

most cultivated here. The pods are going kind, except the pods being of a 
long, round towards the end, and keep light green color. 



tender longer than the square podded 
kind. 

Dvrai'f Oreen. This is a very early 
and prolific variety, and remains tender 
longer than any other. It has come 
into general cultivation, planted much 
more than the tall. It may be said 
here, that all dwarf varieties, when culti- 
vated here in this locality for some 
years, will grow taller every year. 



Velvet. A white variety; dwarf, with 
round, smooth pods, free from ridges 
and seams, and not prickly to the touch ; 
very prolific and early. I tried this 
variety the last three years, and sold a 
good deal of the seed last year. It has 
come up to what is claimed for it. I re- 
commend it to all who have not tried it. 





Wiulo Vehet. 



Tall Growing Okra. 



60 



EICHASB FROTSCHER's ALMANAC! AND dARDEi? MAI^XJAL 



ONION. 

Ognon (Ft.), Zwiebel (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp.). 



Louisiana or Creole. 



White Queen. 



The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown to a large ex- 
tent in Louisiana. It is one of the surest crops to be raised, and always sells. 
Thousands of barrels are shipped in Spring from here to the Western and Northern 
States. There is one peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that is, they 
can only be raised from Southern or so-called Creole seed. No seed from North, 
West, or any part of Europe, will produce a merchantable Onion in the South. 
When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and they are scarce, they will bring a 
good price, having been sold as high as ten dollars a pound, when at the same time 
Northern seed could be had for one-fourth of that price. Northern raised seed can 




FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. Gl 



be sown to be used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow during the 
whole autumn and winter, and multiply very rapidly, the sowing of seed for green 
Onions is not profitable. Seed ought to be sown from the middle of September 
to the end of October ; if sown sooner, too many will throw up seed stalks. When 
the month of September has been dry and hot, the beds where the seeds are sown 
ought to be covered with moss. Where this cannot be had, palmettos can be used, 
but they should be taken off in the evening and replaced in the morning. When 
the seeds are well up, this is no longer necessary, but watering should be continued. 
— They are generally sown broad-cast, and when the size of a goose quill should be 
transplanted into rows one to two feet apart, and about five inches in the rows. 
Onions are different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables. They do best' if 
raised on the same ground for a succession of years. Onions did not bring very 
high prices, owing to the very heavy yield, the largest ever made in Louisiana upon 
the same acreage. The crop of seed has been very large the i)ast season ; the best 
ever made since twenty-five years. Have been able to fill all orders, and plenty of 
seed left to sow for sets. Expect to have enough Creole Sets the coming fall to fill 
all orders. 



Louisiana or Creole Onion. This 
is generally of a light red color, darker 
than the Strassburg, and lighter in color 



been selling of this kind, for a number 
ol years, has been raised on Bayou La- 
fourche, and has never failed to make 



than the Wethersfield. The seed I have ! fine large Onions. 

The crop of Creole Onion seed having failed some years ago, I sold a good deal 
of Italian seed and had amp>le opportunity to see the results. The Giant Koca I 
have discarded; it takes too long to bulb and is very spongy. The Bermuria and 
Red Tripoli have done fairly, but the Onions do not mature as early as the Creole, 
and do not keep so well, although attaining a very large size, and more so the Ber- 
muda. They are of mild flavor, and well adapted to be used up in spring ; but I 
would not recommend them to be raised for shipping, except the White Queen. 

ITALIAN ONIONS. 



liVliite <^ueen. This is a medium 
sized, white variety from Italy, very 
early and flat; can be sown as late as 
February, and good sized bulbs will yet 



be obtained. It is of mild flavor and 
very fine when boiled and dressed for 
the table. It can not be too highly 
recommended. 



SHALLOTS. 

ECHALLOTTE (Fr.), SCHALOTTEN (Ger.). 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally grown in the South, 
and used in its green state for soups, stew, etc. There are two varieties, the Red 
and White ; the latter variety is the most popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs 
are divided and set out in rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They 
grow and multiply very fast, and can be divided during winter, and set out again. 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, thoroughly 
dried, and stored in a dry airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Peksil (Fr.), Petersilie (Ger.), Pertil (Sp.). 
Plain Leaved. | Improved Garai>^hin(j. 

Double Curled. ' 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and during 
spring, from the end of January to the end of April. It is generally sown broad-cast. 



62 



KICHARD FKOTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Plain JLeaved. This is the kind 
raised for the New Orleans market. 



Double Curled. 

variety are curled. 



The leaves of this 
It has the same 



flavor as the other kind, but is not so 
popular. 

Improved Oarnisliing^ This is 
the best kind to ornament a dish ; it has 
the same flavor as the other kinds. 



PARSNIP. 

Panais (Fr.), Pastinake (Ger.), PastinaCa (Sp.). 

Hollow Crown, or Sugar. 

Should be sown in deep, mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the roots are long, in 

drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are three inches high, thin 

out to three inches apart in the row. Sow from September to November for winter, 

and January to March for spring and summer crops. 

The Hollow' Crowu, or Sui^ar, 1 sesses all the good qualities for which 
is the kind generally cultivated ; it pos- ! other varieties are recommended. 

PEAS. 

Pois (Fr.), Erbse (Ger.i, Guisante (Sp.). 
EAELIEST. 
ClevelancVs Alaska, 2hf6et. i Early Tom Thumb, Ifoot. 

Extra Early, or First and Best, "^hfeet. \ Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 
Earhj Washington, 3 feet. ' American Wonder, 11 feet. 



Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, 11 feet 
Champion of England, 5 feet. 
McLean's Advancer, 3 feet. 
Carter's Stratagem, 2hfeet. 



SECOND CROP. 

1 McLean's Little Gem, Ih feet. 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 feet. 

Eugenie, 3 feet. 

Carter's Telephone, 5 feet. 



GENERAL CROP. 



Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. 
Boyal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



I Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 
I Dwarf Sugar, 2hfeet. 

' Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally cultivated. It is 
best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else they will make more vines 
than i?eas. As a general thing the dwarf kinds require richer ground than the 
tall growing varieties. Marrowfat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, 
but they produce finely in sandy light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce a large 
crop without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted in drills two inches 
deep and from two to three feet apart, according to the height they may grow. 
Tom Thumb can be planted one foot apart, whereas White Marrowfat or Cham- 
pion of England require three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom Thumb can 
be planted during August and September for fall. During November and Decem- 
ber we plant the Marrowfats ; January and February, as late as March, all kinds 
can be planted, but for the latter month only the earliest varieties should be used, 
as the late varieties will get mildewed before they bring a crop. Peas will bear 
much better if some brush or rods are stuck in the drills to support them, except 
the very dwarf kinds. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



63 



Alaska. This is an extra early Pea, 
blue in color, the earliest by a few days 
of any other kind ; very pure and proli- 
fic, the best flavored pea among the Ex- 
tra Early smooth podded kinds. Ke- 
eommend it highly. 

Extra Early, or First and Best. 
This was the earliest Pea cultivated, 
until the Alaska was introduced ; very 
popular with the small market garden- 
ers here, who have rich grounds. It is 
very productive and good flavored. The 
stock I sell is as good as any other in the 
country, not surpassed by any, no mat- 
ter whose name is put before "Extra 
Early." 

Early Washing^ton, Early May 
or Frame, which are all nearly the 
same thing ; is about ten days later than 
the Extra Early. It is very productive 
and keeps longer in bearing than the 
foregoing kind. Pods a little smaller. 
Very popular about New Orleans. 



Tom Thumb. Very dwarfish and 
quite productive. Can be cultivated in 
rows a foot apart ; requires no branches 
or sticks. 

Eaxtowi's Alpha. This is a variety 
of recent introduction ; it is the earliest 
wrinkled variety in cultivation ; of deli- 
cious flavor and very prolific. This va- 
riety deserves to be recommended to all 
who like a first-class pea. It will come 
into general cultivation when better 
known. 

American "Wonder. A wrinkled 
pea of dwarf growth, 10 to 12 inches; 
it is prolific, early, and of fine quality ; 
it comes in after the Extra Early. 

Bishop's Dwarf Eong: Pod. An 
early dwarf variety; very stout and 
branching ; requires no sticks but sim- 
ply the earth drawn around the roots. 
It is very productive and of excellent 
quality. 




Alaska. 



64 



EICHAKD FEOTSCHEE S ALMANAC AND GAEDEN MANUAL 



Clisiiupioit of Eng^laiicl. A greeo, 

wrinkled variety of very fine flavor ; not 
profitable for the market, but recom- 
mended for family use. 

]^IcL.eaii's Advancer. This is an- 
other green, v\-rinkled variety, about two 
weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

I?IcL.eati's L,ittle Gem. A dwarf, 
wrinkled variety of recent introduction. 
It is early, very prolific and of excellent 
flavor. Eeqnires no sticks. 

Laxton's Prolific I.oii^ Pod. A 
green marrow j^-ea of good quality. 
Pods are long and well filled. It is sec- 
ond early, and can be recommended 
for the use of market gardeners, being 
very prolific. 

Eujf eiiie. A white wrinkled variety, 
of fine flavor; it is of the same season 




as the Advancer. Cannot be too highly 
recommended for family use. 

Carter's Stratagreni. This is a 
new wrinkled variety from England. 
It is very distinct in vine and foliage, 
growing thick and large, does not need 
any support. It is the Largest Podded 
variety ever brought out, i)ods 4— 5-i- 
inehes long, which cannot be suri)assed 
in flavor, and is very productive. Recom- 
mend it highly. 

Carter's Telephone. Another 
wrinkled English late variety; grows 
about from 4-j to 5 feet high. The pods 
are very long containing from 8—12 fine 
flavored Peas. It is productive ; will 
bear twice as much as the Champion of 
England which is about of the same 
season. 




Extra Early, or Firu-t and Best. 



Carter's Stratasem, 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



I>warf Blue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted 
early, pods are large and well filled. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow. Similar to the large Marrow- 
fat, but of dwarf habit. 

Black-eyed Rlarrowfat. This kind is planted more 
for the market thaji any other. It is very productive, and 
when young, quite tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Large White Marrowfat. Similar to the last 
variety, except that it grows about two feet taller, and is 
less productive, 

I>w^arf Sug'ar. A variety of which the whole pod can 
be used after the string is drawn off from the back of the 
pod. Three feet high. 

TaJI Siig:ar. Has the same qualities as the foregoing 
kind, only grows taller, and the pods are somewhat larger. 
Neither of these two varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in 
them, caused by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod. is 
forming, when it deposits its egg in it. Later the insect 
perfects itself and comes out of the dry pea, leaving the 
hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and thej^ grow 
equally as well as those without holes. Market gardeners 
in this neighborhood who have been planting these Extra 
Early Peas for years, will not take them without holes, 
and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. ra^er. Telephone 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color and growth. 
They are planted mostly for fertilizing pur{)o&es and are sown broad-cast; when 
in a good stand, and of sufficient height, they are plowed under. The Clay Pea is 
the most popular. There are several varieties called crowders, v/hich do not grow 
as tall as the others, but produce a great many pods, which are used green, the 
same as snap-beans, and if dried, like dried beans, make a very good dish. The 
crowders are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at one end ; they are on an aver- 
age larger than the other Pieid Peas. Lady Peas are small, white, with a blac-k 
eye ; they are genera! ly [>Iante(l between corn, so that they can run up on it. Dry, 
they are considered the very best variety for cooking. 




PEPPER, 

PiMENT (Fr.), SPANiaciiER Pfeefer (Grer.), Pimento (Sp.). 

Bell or Bull Nose. Red Cherry. 

Sweet Spanwii Monstrous. Bird Eye. 

Sweet Rubij Kiug. Chili. 

Golden Bawn Mango. * Tabasco. 

Long Red Cai/etnte. Red Cluster. (New.) 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. Seed should be 
sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into the ground in rows 
from one a'ld a half to two feet apart, and a toot to a foot and a half in the rows. 



66 



EICHAED FEOTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



There are more Peppers raised here than in other sections of the country ; the hot 
varieties are used for seasoning and making pepper sauce; the mild variety is 
highly esteemed for salad. Care should be taken not to grow different kinds close 
together, as they mix very readily. 



Si;»"eet §paBiisli or .lloiistrous. 

A very popular variety, much culti- 
vated. It is very mild, grows to a large 
size, tapering towards the end, and, 
when green, is used as a salad. Supe- 
rior for that purpose to any other kind. 
§\veet Pe j>per, Rutoy Kingr* This 
variety grows to a larger size than the 
Sweet Spanish Monstrous, and is of 
different shape. The fruit is from 5 to 
6 inches long bv about 3 to 4 inches in 




Sweet Pepper Ruby King. 




diameter, and of a bright red color. It 
is remarkabl^^ mild and pleasant in 
flavor, and can be sliced and eaten as a 
salad, the same as the Spanish Mon- 
strous. Single plants ripen from 8 to 10 
fruits, making this variety both produc- 
tive and profitable. A decided acquisi- 
tion. 

Ooideii I>awii Maug^o. This sweet 
pepper attracted much attention for the 
last four years, and was admired by all 




Sweet Spanish, or Monstrous Pepper. 




Long Red Cnytnne Pepper. 



Red Oierry Pepper. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



67 



who saw it. I believe it to be all the 
originator claims for it. In shape and 
size it resembles the Bell. Color, a 
bright loaxy golden yelloiv ; very brilliant 
and handsome. Single plants ripen 
from twelve to twenty-four fruits, mak- 
ing them productive and profitable. 
They are entirely exempt from any fiery 
taste or fiavor, and can be eaten as 
readily as an apple. 

Bell or Bull Nose. Is a large ob- 
long variety which is not sweet or mild, 
as thought by some people. The seeds 
are very hot. Used for pickling. 

Long: JKed Cayenne. Is very hot 
and pungent. Cultivated here and used 
for pepper sauce and seasoning pur- 
poses. There are two varieties, one is 
long and straight, and the other like 
shown in cut, which is the only kind I 
keep. 

Red Cherry. A small roundish va- 
riety, very hot and productive. 

Bird Eye. Small, as the name indi- 
cates. It is very hot and used princi- 
pally for pepper vinegar. 

Cleili. A small variety, from three- 
fourths to an inch long. It is strong, 
and used for pepper sauce ; very prolific. 



Tabasco. True. Another small va- 
riety, used more for pepper sauces than 
any other kind; the fruit is easily 
gathered, growing almost erect on the 
branches. 




Red Cluster Pepper. 

Red CSiister. A new variety of 
which the pods grow in bunches, upright 
like the Chili which the pods resemble, 
but are a little larger. It is quite dis- 
tinct; ornamental on account of the 
bright fruit and compact growth of the 
plant. It is hot and pungent. 



POTATOES. 

PoMME DE Teree (Fr.), Kartoffel (Ger.j. 



Early Eose. 

Breese'a Peerless. 

Russets. 

Extra Early Vermont. 



Snowflake. 
Beauty of Hebron. 
White Elephant. 
Riwal Blush. 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. Well decom- 
posed stable manure is the best, but if not to be had, cotton seed meal, bone dust, 
or any other fertilizer should be used to make the ground rich enough. If the 
ground was planted the fall previous with Cow Peas, which were plowed under, it 
will be in good condition for Potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for 
planting, which can be cut in pieces not too small ; each piece ought to contain at 
least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three feet apart, according to the 
space and how to be cultivated afterwards. Field culture two and a half to three 
feet apart; for garden, two feet will answer. We plant potatoes here from end of 
December to end of March, but the surest time is about the first of February. If 
planted early they should be planted deeper than if planted late, and hilled up as 
they grow. If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled soon, they will suffer 
more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted deep and hilled up well. Early po- 
tatoes have not the same value here as in the North, as the time of planting is so 
long, and very often the first planting gets cut d,own, l^j a frost, and a late planting,. 



RICHARD FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



which may just be peepin."" through the ground, will escape and produce in advance- 
of the first planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here if planted in August ; 
if the autumn is not too dry, they will bring nice tubers by the end of November. 
They should not be cut if planted at this time of the year, but planted whole. 
They should be put in a moist place before plantincr, so they may sprout. The 
early varieties are preferable for this time of planting. 

I have been handling several thousand barrels of x^otatoes every season for 
planting, and make Seed Potatoes a specialty. The potatoes I sell are Eastern 
grown, which, as every one interested in potato culture knows, are superior and 
preferable to Western grown. 

I have tried and introduced all new kinds here ; but of late so many have come 
out that it is almost impossible to keep up with them. New varieties of potatoes 
come out with fancy prices, but these prices for new potatoes do not pay here, as 
we can keep none over for seed, and any person raising for the market would not 
realize a cent more for a new fancy variety per barrel, than for a barrel of good Peer- 
less or Early Kose. Earliness is no consideration, as we plant from December to 
end of March. Somebody may plant Early Eose in December and another in Feb- 
ruary, and those planted in February come to the market first ; it depends entirely 
upon the season. If late frosts set in, early planted potatoes will be cut down, and 
those just coming out of the ground will not be hurt. 

Up to now the Peerless is the standard variety. Among the new kinds I have 
tried, I find the White Elephant to be a fine potato. It is a very strong grower, 
tubers oblong, very productive, good quality and flavor. It is late, and will come 
in at the end of the season, if planted with the earlier varieties. The Extra Early 
Vermont, Beauty of Hebron, Snowflake and Early Eose for early, and Peerless and 
White Elephant for late, are as good varieties as exist, and it is not likely tiiat we 
will have anything better by new introductions. The Eural Blush, which I intro- 
duced some 3'ears ago, may be added to the late varieties ; it is of excellent quality, 
strong grower and yields heavily. Most people are not careful enough in selecting 
their seed. Some of the potatoes sold in this market for seed are not fit for planting. 

For the description of some new varieties of potatoes, tried the past season, see 
''Novelties.'' Give them a trial. 




Von THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



69 




Snowflake. 



£arly Roi^e. This is, without any 
doubt, the best potato for the table. 
It is o^al, very shallow-eyed, pink- 
skinned, very dry, and mealy when 
boiled. It has not become so popular 
as it deserves as a market variety, as 
pink or red potatoes do not sell so well 
here as the white kinds. This variety 
should not be planted too soon, from the 
fact that they make small stalks, and if 
cut down by frost, they suffer more than 
other varieties; but they want rich, 
light soil to grow to perfection. 

Breese's Peerless, Sixteen years 
ago this variety was introduced, yet at 
present it is the leading variety for mar- 
ket as well as for family use. Skin dull 
white, sometimes slightly russetted; 
eyes few and shallow, round, occa- 
sionally oblong; grows to a large size; 
very productive and earlier than the 
Jackson White. As white potatoes are 
more salable than pinkish kinds, and as 
this variety is handsome in appearance, 
and of good quality, it has become the 
general favorite in this section. 

K&issets. This kind is still planted 
bv some. It is round, reddish and slight- 
ly russetted. Eyes deep and many. 
Very productive, but not so fine a qual- 
ity as some others. Does best in sandy 
soil, such as we have along the lake 
coast. If the season is dry it will do 



well, but in a wet season, this variety 
will rot quicker than any other. 

Extra Early Vermont. Yery sim- 
ilar to the Early Eose, but of a stronger 
growth ; a little earlier, and the tubers 
are more uniform and larger. It is an 
excellent table variety. 

Siiow/lake. This is a very early 
variety. Tubers good medium size, 
elongated, very uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on the body of the 
tuber, but compressed on the seed end. 
Skin white, flesh very fine grained, and 
when boiled, snow-white. 

Beauty of Hebron. I have tried 
this variety thoroughly and found it in 
every particular as has been repre- 
sented. It is earlier than the Early 
Kose, which resembles it very much, 
being a little lighter and more russetted 
in color. It is very productive and of 
excellent table quality; more mealy 
than the Early Kose, but smaller. 

White Elephant. This variety has 
again given entire satisfaction the past 
season. The tubers are large and of ex- 
cellent quality ; planted alongside of the 
Peerless, it produced fully one third 
more than that variety. 

KiiraS Blush. Second early, tubers 
roundish flattened, blush skin, flesh 
slighted with pink. Very dry and of 
excellent quality. A heavy yielder. 



70 



RICHARD FROTSCflER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus Batatas. 

The sweet Potato is next to corn the most nnportant food crop in the South. 
They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man and beast. Though cul- 
tivated to a limited extent on the sandy lands of New Jersey and some of the middle 
States, it thrives best on the light rich lands of the South, which bring their red 
and golden fruits to greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It 
is a plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than the Irish 
Potato on account of the great amount of saccharine matter it contains, and no 
southern table should be found without it from the first day of August till the last 
day of May. Some plant early in spring tlie potato itself in the prepared ridges, 
and cut the vine from the potato when large enough, and plant them oat; others 
start the potatoes in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will j^roduce the 
earliest potatoes ; others who set the vines, say that they make the largest tubers. 
In preparing the land the soil should be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off 
about five feet apart, well drawn up and rather flat on toi». If everything is ready, 
and time for planting has arrived, do not wait for a rain, make a paste ®f clay and 
cow manure; in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth firmly around 
them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young ones, and will under cir- 
cumstances auswer best. Watering afterwards, if dry weather continues, of course 
will be beneficial. • Otherwise plant your vines and slips just before or after a rain. 
Two feet apart in the rows is considered a good distance. The ridges should never 
be disturbed by a plow from the time they are made until the potatoes are ready to 
be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and 3'oung weeds with the hoe, and pull up the large ones 
by hand. Crab grass is peculiarly inimical to the sweet potato, and should be 
carefully kept out of the patch. The vines should never be allowed to take root 
between the rows. Sweet potatoes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs ; a 
very light one will do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to keep it from 
sticking to the potatoes. The old fashioned potato bank is the best arrangement 
for keeping them, the main points being a dry place and ventilation. 

Varieties generally cultivated in the South. 



The YauB. Taking into considera- 
tion quality and productiveness, the 
Yam stands at the head of the list. 
Frequently, when baked, the saccharine 
matter in the shape of candy will be seen 
hanging to them in strings. Skin and 
flesh yellow and very sweet. AVithout 
a doubt, the best potato for family use. 

Southern Queen. Very similar to 
the former, but smoother, the tubers 
having no veins or very few ; it is earlier. 

Shang:hai or California Taui. 
This is the earliest variety/we have. 



frequently, under favorable circum- 
stances, giving good sized tubers two 
months after planting the vine. Very 
productive, having given 300 bushels per 
acre when planted early and on rich 
land. Is almost the only kind cultivated 
for the New Orleans market. Skin dull 
white or yellow, flesh white, dry and 
mealy, in large specimens frequently 
stringy. 



There are some other varieties of Sw^eet Potatoes highly prized in the West, but 
not appreciated here. The Red and Yellow Nansemond are of a fine quality and 
productive, but will not sell so well as the California Yam, when taken to market. 
For home consumption they are fine, and deserve to be cultivated. 



FOE THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



71 



PUMPKIN. 

PoTiRON (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza (Sp.). 
Kentucky Field. i Cashaw Crook Iseck. (Green Striped.) 

Large Cheese. I Golden Yellow Mammoth. 

Are generally grown in the Held, with the exception of the Cashaw, which is 
planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken not to plant them close to 
Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and spoil their quality. ^^- - • -•" - 
eight to twelve feet apart. 



Plant in hills from 




Golden Yellow Mammoth. 



Kentucky Field. Large round, 
soft shell, salmon color; very produc- 
tive ; best for stock. 

Larg-e Cheese. This is of a bright 
orange, sometimes salmon color, line 
grained, and used for table or for stock 
feeding. 

Cashaw Crook Week. This is 
very extensively cultivated in the South 
for table use. There are two kinds, one 
all yellow and the other green striped 
with light yellow color. The latter is 
the preferable kind; the flesh is fine 
grained, yellow, very sweet, and better 
than any Winter Squash. It keeps well, 
it takes the place here of the Winter 
Squashes, which are very little cul- 
tivated. The striped variety has been 
cultivated here since a century and 
never was found North or West ; since a 
few years it has been brought out by 
Northern Seedsmen as "Jsipau Pie 
Pumpkin.'^ I had this kind grown 
alongside of the Southern Striped Ca- 
shaw, and found it one and the same. 



Oolden Yello\i^ WlaMimoth. This 
is a very large Pumpkin. Flesh and skin 
are of a bright golden color, fine grained 
and of good quality. I had some 
brought to the store weighing one hun- 
dred to one hundred and fifty pounds, 
raised on land which was not manured 
or fertilized. 




Green Striped Cashaw Crook Neck. 



72 



BICHARD FEOTgCHER's ALMaKAC AKD GARDEN MANUAL 



RADISH. 

Eadies, Eave (Fr.j, Radies, Rettig (Ger 

Early Long Scarlet. 

Chartier's Long. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. 

Golden Globe. 

Early Scarlet Olive-shaped. 

White Summer Turnip). 

Scarlet Half Long French. 



Rabano (Sp.). 

Scarlet Olive-Shaped, Wldte- Tipped or 

French Breakfast. 
Black Spanlsli (Winter). 
Chinese Eose (Winter). 
White Strasburgh. 
White California Mammoth. 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. The ground for 
radishes should be rich and mellow. The early small varieties can be sown broad- 
cast among other crops, such as beets, peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been 
transplanted. Early varieties are sown in this section the whole year, but during 
summer they require frequent watering to make the^m grow quickly. The Golden 
Globe and White Summer Turnip are best for planting during the summer months. 
The Half Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised for the New Orleans 
market, and all the other cities in the United States taken together do not use as 
many of that one variety as New Orleans does. I have sold nearly two thousand 
pounds of the seed per annum for the last twelve years. 

colored at the top, shading off lighter, 
until at the bottom it becomes white. 

My trials with this variety have not 
been satisfactory ; the roots are larger, 
but not very symmetrical, and not bet- 
ter in flavor than the long scarlet. Will 
never become a favorite here. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small, 
round variety, the favorite kind for fa- 
mil}" use. It is very early, crisp and 
mild when young. 

Crolden OBobe. This stands the 
heat better than the foregoing kinds. 
It is of an oblong shape, and of a beau- 
tiful bright yellow color. It should be 
sown very thinly. Best adapted for 
summer and fall sowing. The variety 
I keep is of the finest strain, and as good 
as any ever sold. 

Early Scarlet Olive -shaped. 
This is similar to the Half Long French, 
but shorter, and not quite so bright in 
color. It is early and of good quality. 
Top short. 

'White Summer Turnip. Thte is* 
a summer and fall variety. Oblong' in 
shape, skin white, stands the heat well, 
but not much used. 

Scarlet HaSf Lion^ French. 
This is the most popular Radish for the 
market. It is of a bright scarlet color, 




Early Long Scarlet. 

Early Eong* Scarlet. This is a very 
desirable variety ; it is of a bright scar- 
let color ; short top and very brittle. 

Chartier's Eong^ Radi§h. A new 

long Radish, described as deep crimson 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



73 




Early Scarlet Turuip. 



Scarlet Half Ljng French. 



Goldeu Globe. 



and when well grown, from two to three 
inches long, very brittle and tender. 
Scarlet Olive-sliaped. White 

tipped, or French Breakfast. . A 

handsome Kadish of the same shape as 
the foregoing kind, with end and root 
white. Quite tender. 

Black Spanish. (Winter.) This 
is sown during fall and early winter. 
It is oval in shape, very solid, and stands 
considerable cold weather without be- 
ing hurt. It can be sown broad-cast be- 
tween Turnips, or planted in rows a 
foot apart, thinned out from three to 
four inches in the rows, 

Chinese Rose. (Winter.) This is 
of a half long shape, bright rose color. 
It is as hardy as the last described kind, 
not so popular, but superior to the fore- 
going kind. Consider it the best winter 
variety. 



Mew "White Strasbiirg^h. A new 

variety, of an oblong, tapering shape; 
the skin and flesh are pure v/hite, firm, 
brittle and tender, and has the tendency 
of retaining its crispness even when the 
roots are old and large. It is a very good 
kind for summer use, as it withstands 
the severe heat, and grows very quickly. 
The seed can be planted throughout 
the summer, and fine large roots will be 
rapidly formed. It is an excellent va- 
riety for family use, as well as for the 
market. 

l¥hite CaSifornia Mammoth. 
This is a Winter variety of large size, 
but can be sown here in earl}^ Spring. 
It is the largest of all Eadishes, and 
grows from 8 to 12 inches long, 2 to 3 
in diameter. 



ROQUETTE. 

EOQUETTE (Fr). 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resembling the Cress 



In taste. 



SALSIFY OR OYSTER PLANT. 



Salsifis (Fr.), Haferwurzel (Ger. \ Ostra Vegetal (Sp.). 

American. \ New Sandivich Island (Mennmoth). 

A vegetable which ought to be more cultivated than it is. It is prepared in 
different ways. It partakes of the flavor of oysters. It should be sown in the fall 
of the year; not later than November. The ground ought to be manured the 
spring previous, deeply spaded, and well i)ulverized. Sow in drills about ten 
inches apart, and thin out from three to four inches in the rows. 



n 



KICHARD FROTSCHEE'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




:-^;iud\vieh Island Mcimmoth Salsify 



Aanericasi Saisiiy. This kind used | 
to be generally cultivated ; but since the I 
introduction of the Sandwich Island I 
Mammoth, the demand for it has de- 
creased considerably. 

New SsaodwicSi Island SaSsHy. 
(Mammoth.) This is a new sort which 



grows much quicker than the old varie- 
ties, it attains a large size ; can be called 
with right mammoth. It is very superior 
to the old kinds, and should be generally 
cultivated. 



SPINACH. 

Epinard [Fi\), Spinat (Ger.), Espinago (Sp.). 
Extra Large Leaved Savoy. \ Broad Leaved Flanders. 

A great deal of this is raised for the New Orleans Market. It is very popular. 
Sown from September to end of March. If the fall is dry and hot, it is useless to sow 
it, as the seeds require moisture and cool nights to make them come up. The 
richer the ground the larger the leaves. 
Extra l.ar§^e Leaved Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick 
and a little curled. Very good for family 
use. 



Broad Leaved Flanders. This 
is the best standard variety, both for 
market and family use. Leaves large, 
broad and very succulent. 



SORREL. 

OsEiLLE (Fr.), Sauerampfer (Ger.), Acedera (Sp.). 

Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year, and thinned out from 
three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for various purposes in the kitchen. 
It is used the same as Spinach ; also in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 

Courge (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza Tontanera (Sp.). 
Early Bush, or Patty Pan. The Hubbard. 

Long Green, or Summer Crook Neck. Boston Marrow. 

London Vegetable Mari^oiv. 

Sow during March in hills from three to four feet apart, six to eight seeds. 
"When well up, thin them out to three of the strongest plants. For a succession 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



75 



they can be planted as late as June. Some who protect by boxes, plant as soon as 
the first of February, but it is best to wait till the ground gets warm. When it is 
time to plant Corn, it is also time to plant Squash. 






Early Bush or Patty Pan. 



Long Green or Summer Crook Neck. 



The Hubbard. 



EarBy Biisl«, or Patty Paw. Is 

the earliest and only popular kind here. 
All other varieties are very little culti- 
vated, as the Green Striped Cashaw 
Pumpkin takes their place. It is of 
dwarfish habit, grows bushy, and does 
not take much room. Quality as good 
as any. 

Ltong: g^reen, or Summer Crook- 
Neds.. This is a very strong grower, 
and continues in bearing longer than 
the first named kind. It is of good 
quality, but not so popular. 

London Veg^etatole Marrow. A 
European variety, very little cultivated 
here. It grovv^s to a good size and is very 
dry. Color whitish with a yellow tinge. 



The IInt»l>ard. This is a Winter 
Squash, very highly esteemed in the 
East, but hardly cultivated here. It is, 
if planted here, inferior to the Southern 
Striped Cashaw Pumpkin which can be 
kept from one season to another, and is 
superior in flavor to the former kind. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a 
large extent North and East for winter 
use, where it is used for custards, etc. It 
keeps for a long time and is of excellent 
quality, but not esteemed here, as most 
people consider the Southern grown 
Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any Win- 
ter Squash. 



TOMATO. 

Tom ATE (Fr.), Liebesapfel (Ger.), Tom ate (Sp.). 



King of the Earliea. 
Extra Early Dwarf Bed. 
Early Large Smooth Bed. 
Trophy, (Selected.) 
Large Yellow. 



Acme. 

Paragon. 

Livingston's Perfection. 

Livingston's Favorite. 

Livirigsion's Beauty. 



Seed should be sown in January, in hot-beds, or in boxes, which must be placed 
in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In March they can be sown in the open 
ground. Tomatoes are generally sown too thick and become too crowded when 
two or three inches high, which makes the plants too thin and spindly. If they 
are transplanted when two or three inches high, about three inches apart each 



76 



mCHARD ITKOTSCHER'S ALMaNAC AKD (lARDEH MANUAL 



way, they will become short and sturdy, and will not sujffer when planted into 
the ojDen ground. Plant them from three to four feet apart. Some varieties can 
be planted closer ; for instance, the Extra Early, which is of very dwarfish habit, 
two and a half feet apart is enough. 

They should be supported by stakes. When allowed to grow up wild, the fruit 
which touches the ground will rot. For a late or fall crop the seed should be sown 
towards the latter part of May and during June. 



King* of the Esis'Hes. This variety 
was introduced here by me two years 
ago. It is very early and productive; 
color bright red, of good size and quite 
solid. The vine is medium, stout and 
branching. The buds appear soon, 
blossoms as a rule adhere and produce 
fruit. It is so much earlier than the 
Livingston varieties, that it should be 
planted for the first. The latter varieties 



are so very handsome in shape, that they 
will sell better than any other, when 
the market is once well supplied. 

Extra Earay B^^arf. This is the 
earliest in cultivation. It is dwarfish in 
habit; fruit larger than the following 
kind, and more fiat; bright scarlet in 
color and very productive. For an 
early market variety it cannot be sur- 
passed. 




King- of the Earlies. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



77 



^! 'B 




Livingston' s Favorite. 

EsarBy l.n.rafe SiMooila 
Ked. An eaiiy kind of me- 
dium size ; smooth and pro- 
ductive. 

SeSecied TropSuy. A 
very large, smooth Tomato, 
more solid and heavier than 
any other kind, ilas become 
a favorite variety. 

I^s4r§-e YelBow. This is 
similar in shape to the large 
Ked, but more solid. Not 
very popular. 

Acane. This is one of the 
prettiest and most solid To- 
matoes ever introduced. It 
is of medium size, round 
and very smooth, a strong 
grower, and a good and long- 
bearer. It is the perfection 
of Tomatoes for family use, 
but will not answer for ship- 
ping purposes ; the skin is 
too tender, and cracks when 
fully ripe. Of all the varie- 
ties introduced, none has yet 
surpassed this kind when 
all qualities are brought into 
consideration. It does well 
about here where the grou nd 
is heavy. 

Pai*ag:oai. This variety 
has lately come into notice. 
It is very solid, of a bright 
reddish crimson color, comes 
Id about tlie same time asthe 
Tildeu, bat is heavier in fo- 




Aeme Tomato. 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Livingston's Beauty. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



79 



liage, and protects its fruit. It is pro- It ripens with the Acme or Paragon, but 
ductive and keeps long in bearing. Well keeps longer. It is very perfect in shape 
adapted for shipping. and does not crack, like some of the 

Liiving^ston's Perfection. Very thin skinned sorts, 
similar to the foregoing in shape and 
color. 

L.iving-stoii's Favorite. This Toma- 
to was introduced only a few years ago ; 
it is as perfect in shape and as solid as 
the Acme, but much larger, and of a 
handsome dark red color. I had some 
sent to me by a customer, and they 
surely were the finest specimen of toma- 
toes I ever saw, and were admired by 
everybody v/ho saw them. They will 
keep well, and do not crack. 

jLivisBg-stosi's Beauty. This va- 
riety was offered for the first time four 
years ago. It is quite distinct in color, 
being a very glossy crimson with a light 
tinge of purple, (lighter than the Acme). 

The seeds of the last five varieties are raised for me by the originators, 
Messrs. Livingston's Sons, and can be relied upon as being true to name 
and of superior quality. 




Paragon. 



TURNIP. 

N-WkT (Fr.), Rube ^Ger.), Nabo Oomun (Sp. 



JEarlij Red or Pvrjjle Top 

(strap-leaved). 
Early White Flat Dutch, (strapj-leaved.) 
Purple Top Globe. 
Large White Globe. 
Pomerian Globe. 
White Spring. 



Yellow Aberdeen. 
Golden Ball. 
Amber Globe. 
Early Purple Top Munich. 
Improved, Ruta Baga. 
Extra Earlu White French, or White 
Egg Turnip. 



Turnii)S do best in new ground. When the soil has been worked long, it should 
receive a top dressing of land-i:)laster or ashes. If stable manure is used the ground 
should be manured the spring previous to sowing, so it may be well incorporated 
with the soil. When fresh manure is used the turnips are apt to become speckled. 
Sow from end of July till October for fall and winter, and in January, February 
and March for spring and summer use. They are generally sown broad-cast, but 
the Ruta Ba^ga should be sown in drills, or rather ridges, and should not be sown 
later than the end of August ; the Golden Ball and Aberdeen, not later than the 
end of September. The White Flat Dutch, Early Spring and Pomerian Globe are 
best for si)ring, but also good for autumn. 



Early Red or Purple Top. 

(Strap-Leaved. ) This is one of the most 
poi)ular kinds. It is flat, with a stnall 
tap-root, and a bright purple top. The 
leaves are narrow and grow erect from 
the bulb. The flesh is finely grained 
and rich. 



JEargy Wiiite Flat Dutch. (Strap- 
Leaved.) This is similar to the above 
in shape, but considered about a week 
earlier. It is a very poi)ular. 

Piij'ple Top Olotoe. A variety of 
recent introduction ; same shape as the 
Pomerian Globe, but with purple top. 



so 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Fine variety for table or for stock. It is 
not quite so early as the Early Eed or 
Piu'iile Top. I recommead it very highly*. 

I^arg-e WBiitc Globe. A very large 
-> ariety, mostly grown for stock. It can 
be vised for the table when young. Flesh 
coarse, but sweet; tops ver^^ large. 

Pomerian Olobe. This is selected 
t:bm the above. It is smoother and 
handsomer in shape :good to plant early 



in spring. When pulled before it is too 
large it is a very salable turnip in the 
market. 

Wliite Spring-. This is similar to 
the White Flat Dutch; not quite so 
large, but rounder in shape. The tops 
are larger; it is early, a good quality, 
and best adapted for spring planting. 

Yellow Aberdeen. This is a variety" 
very little cultivated here. It is shaped 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



81 



like the Buta Baga, 
stock. 



color yellow with purple top. Good for table use or feeding 



Robertson's C^olden Ball, is the best of the yellow Turnips for table use. 
It is very smooth, oval in shape, and of a beautiful orange color. Leaves are small. 
Should be sown in the fall of the year, and always in drills, so that the plants can 
be thinned out and worked. This kind ought to be more cultivated. 
Amber Globe. This is very similar to the above kind. 

Extra Early Purple Top 
ITIunicii. A new kind from Ger- 
many; flat, with red or purple 
top ; same as the American va- 
riety, but fifteen days earlier to 
mature. It is very hardy, tender, 
and of fine flavor. 

Improved Purple Top 
Ruta Bag:a. This is grown for 
feeding stock, and also for table 
use. It is oblong in shape, yel- 
low flesh, very solid. Should al- 
ways be sown in rows or ridges. 

E X t !• a Early 1¥ Bi i t e 
Frencli or White EgrS" Tur- 
nip. This is a lately introduced 
variety ; is said to be very early ; 
tender and crisp. The shape of 
it is oblong, resembling an egg. 
Having tried it, I found it as 
represented, quickly growing, 
tender and sweet. It will never 
become a favorite market va- 
riety, as only flat kinds sell well 
in this market. It has to be 
pulled up soon, as it becomes 
pithy shortly after attaining ma- 
turity. 




Early White Flat Dutch [strap-leaved.] 



Munich Extra Early Purple Top. 



82 



EICHAKD FKOTSCHEE's ALMANAC AXD GARDEN MANUAL 




Extra Early Whire French, qt: Wtate Egg Turnip. Improved Purple Top Rut-a Ba; 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



TOBACCO SEEDS. 



I imported from one 
Vuelto Abajo, which 



Imported Havana. 

finest and purest strain of 
Havana varieties. 

Price, 10 cts. per package— 40 cts. per oz., $4.00 per lb. 

Connecticut Seed Leaf. A well-lcnown American variety. 

Price, 10 cts. per package, -25 cts. per oz.,— $2.50 per lb. 



of the ))rincipal growers the 
is considered the best of the 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 

Some of these herbs possess culinary as well as medicinal properties. Should be 
found in every garden. Ground where they are to be sown should be well prepared 
and pulverized. Some of them have very fine seed, and it is onl3'' necessary, after 
the seed is sown, to press the ground with the back of the spade; if covered too 
deep they cannot come up. Early spring is the best time to sow them— some, such 
as Sage, Kosemary, Lavender and Basil, are best sov/n in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 



Anise, Pimpinelle Anisuyn. 

Balm, Melisse Officinalis. 

Basil, large and small leaved. Ocijmum 

Basilicum. 
Bene, Seaamum Orientale. 
Borage, Borago Officinalis^. 
Caraway, Carum Carni. 
Dill, Anethum Graveolens. 
Fennel, sweet, Anethum Foeniculum. 



Lavender, Lavendula Vera. 
Marjoram, sweet, Origanum Mai/oram. 
Pot Marigold, Calendula Officinalis. 
Eosemary, Bosemary Officinalis. 
Rue, Buta Graveolens. 
Sage, Salvia Officinalis. 
Summer Savory, Satureja Hortensis. 
Thyme, Thymus Vulgaris. 
Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium. 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 



I have often been asked what kind of Grass Seed is the best for this latitude, 
but so far I have never been able to answer this question satisfactorily. For hay 
I do not think there is anything better than the Millet. For permanent grass I 
have almost come to the conclusion that none of the grasses used for this purpose 
North and West will answer. Barley, Rye, Red Oats and Rescue Grass will make 
winter pasturage in this latitude. Different kinds of Clover answer very well during 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found anything to stand 
and produce, except the Bermuda and Crabgrass, which are indigenous to the South. 

Of late years the Lespedeza Striata, or Japan Clover, has been sown exten- 
sively, a description of which will be found on page 92. 

The Bermuda, in my opinion, is better suited for pasturage than hay, as it is 
rather short and hard when cured. Having tried Guinea Grass I have come to the 
conclusion that it will not answer here, from the fact that it will freeze out every 
year. It will produce a large quantity of hay or green fodder, but has to be resown 
every spring. The seeds that are raised here are light, and do not germinate freely. 
To import seed every year is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass advertised 
by some as Guinea Grass, is not Guinea Grass ; it is much coarser, and can hardly 
be destroyed after having taken hold of a piece of ground.. Some are enthusiastic 



84 



KICHAED FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



about Alfalfa or Lucerne ; others, whose opinion also ought to be respected, say it 
will not do here. There exists a great difference of opinion in regard to which grass 
seed is the most suitable for the South. 



Red Clover. Should be sown either 
during fall or early in spring. Six to 
eight pounds to an acre. 

^hite l>iitc!s Clover. A grass 
sown for pasturage at the rate of four to 
six pounds to the acre. Should be sown 
in fall and early spring. 

Alfalfa or Chili Clover, or 
French Liiaeersie. This variety does 
well here, but the ground has to be well 
prepared and deeply plowed. It will 
not do in low wet ground. Should be 
sown in the fall of the year, or January 




and February ; eight to ten pounds per 
acre. This being of special value I refer 
to the letter written by E. M. Hudson 
on the subject. (See latter part of this 
Almanac.) 

Keutiicky Blue Orass. (Extra 
Cleaned.) Should be sown in dry soil. 
Two bushels per acre. See page §8. 

Meadow Fescue, Festucajji^atensis. 
As a pasture grass I consider this one of 
the most valuable. It is not affected by 
dry weather, as its roots penetrate the 
earth 12 to 15 inches ; it is much relished 
by all kinds of stock on account of its 
long and tender leaves. It yields a 
very superior hay when cured. It has 
been grown very little in this country 
and is deserving of much more attention. 
Sow in s[)riiig or fall. ,Two bushels to the 
acre. In some sections it is called Ean- 
dall Grass. This should not be con- 
fonnded with the English Rye Grass, 



offered by 
varietv. 



some dealers as the 




M'hiTe E'utcli Clover. 



Alfalfa or Luct-riifc Clover. 



foS fHfe SOtlTHERN Sl'A^ES}. 



85 




Meadow Fescue Gruss. 




Amber Sors:huin. 



Orchard Oras§. This is one of the 
best grasses for pasturing. It grows 
quickly, much miore so than the Blue 
Grrass. Can be sown either in fall or 
spring. Sow one to one and a half 
bushels per acre. (See extract from 
"Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

Rescue Orass. A forage plant from 
Australia. It grows during winter. Sow 
the seed in the fall of the year, but not 
before the weather gets cool, as it will 
not' sprout so long as the ground is 
warm. Sow li bushels seed to the acre. 

Hung^arian Grass. This is a valu- 
able annual forage plant, and good to 
make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. 
It should be cut when in bloom. 

Oerman Millet. Of all the Millets 
this is the best. It makes good hay, 
and produces heavily. Three pecks sown 
to the acre broad-cast secures a good 
stand. Can be sown from April till June 
but the former month is the best time. 
Should be cut the same as the foregoing 
kind. 

Rye. Is sown during the fall months 
as late as December, for forage ; and for 
pasturage, during winter and spring. 

Barley, Fall. Can be sown fall and 
winter, but requires strong, good soil. 
Used here for forage during its green 
state. 

Texas Red or Rast Proof Oats. 
It is only a few years since these oats 



have come into general cultivation. 
They are very valuable, and will save a 
great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of 
this variety has a reddish cast, and a pe- 
culiar long beard, and is very heavy. It 
is the only kind which will not rust in 
the Southern climate. They can be sown 
as early as October, but should be pas- 
tured down as soon as they commence 
to joint, till February. When the ground 
is low, or the season wet, this cannot 
well be done without destroying the 
whole crop. During January and Feb- 
ruary is the proper time, if no pasturing 
can be done. One to one and a half 
bushels per acre is sufficient. These 
oats have a tendency to stool, and there- 
fore do not require as much per acre as 
common oats. Those who have not al- 
ready tried this variety should do so. 

Sorg°liiiiii. Is planted for feeding 
stock during the spring and early sum- 
mer. For this purpose it should be sown 
as early in spring as possible in drills 
about two to three feet apart ; three to 
four quarts per acre. It makes excel- 
lent green fodder. 

Dliouro, or £g:yptiaii Corn. 
Sorghum vulgare. This is a well known 
cereal. It produces a large quantity of 
seed, of which fowls and animals are 
fond.— Can also be sown broad-cast, for 
soiling or in drills for fodder and seed. 
If sowed in drills, one peck of seed per 



86 



richarC frotscher's almanac and garden manual 



acre is ample. If sown broad-cast,, one 
bushel per acre. For grain, the stalks 
should not be nearer than 10 inches in 
the drill, but if to be cut repeatedly for 
soiling, it is better to sow quite thickly 
in the hills. Seed should not be sown 
too early, and covered from one half to 
one inch. If too much rain in the 
Spring, the seed will not come well.; — 
they require more heat than the other 
Sorghums. Eural Branching Sorghum 
or Millow Maize produces the seed heads 
upright in a vertical position, while the 
others are dro[)ping. The seeds are 



smaller, but will keep longer than the 
other varieties. The stalk grows very 
large and produces a good many large 
leaves. It suckers and tillers more and 
more the ofteuer it is cut. It exceeds 
greatly in yield of green fodder any of 
the familiar fodder plants, except the 
"Teosinte."— It should be planted ex- 
clusively in drills four feet apart, 18 to 
20 inches in the drills. 

Broom €orn. Can be planted the 
same as corn, put the hills closer to- 
gether in the row. Six quarts will plant 
an acre. 



The following extracts have been taken, by permission from the author 

Book of Grasses.'"' It is the most 



D. L. Phares, from his book "Farmers' 
able work of the kind ever published in 
the South, and should be in the hands 
of every one who takes an interest in 
the cultivation of grasses. 

Copies for sale at publisher's price. 
Paper covers, 25 cents ; Cloth, 35 cents ; 
postage paid. 

ORCHARD GRASS. 

(Dactylis Glomerata.) 
Of all the grasses this is one of the 
most widely diffused, growing in Africa, 
Asia and every country in Europe and 
all our States. It is more highly es- 
teemed and commended than any other 
grass, by a larger number of farmers in 
most countries- a most decided proof 
of its great value and wonderful adap- 
tation to many soils, climates and treat- 
ments. Yet, strange to say, though 
growing in England for many centuries 
it was not appreciated in that country 
till carried there from Virginia in 1764. 
But, as in the case of Timothy, soon af- 
ter its introduction from America, it 
came into high favor among farmers, 
and still retains its hold on their esti- 
mation as a grazing and hay crop. 

Nor is this strange when its many ad- 
vantages and points of excellence are 
considered. It will grow well on any 
soil containing sufficient clay and not 
holding too much water. If the land 
be too tenacious, drainage will remedy 
the soil; if worn out, a top dressing 
of stable ma-oure will give it a good 



>^V 




Orchard Grass. 



FOR ¥hE feOUTHteilN S^AiES. 



8^ 



send-off, and it will famish several good 
mowings the first year. It grows well 
between 29 - and 48 = latitude. It may 
be mowed from two to four times a year, 
according to the latitude, season and 
treatment; yielding from one to three 
tons of excellent hay per acre on poor 
to medium land. In grazing and as 
hay, most animals select it in preference 
among mixtures in other grasses. In 
lower latitudes it furnishes good winter 
grazing, as well as for spring, summer 
and fall. After grazing, or mowing, few 
grasses grow so rapidly (three or six 
inches per week), and are so soon ready 
again for tooth or blade. It is easily 
cured and handled. It is readily seeded 
and catches with certainty. Its long, 
deeply penetrating, fibrous roots enable 
it to sustain itself and grow vigorously 



during droughts that dry up other trass- 
es, except tall oat grass, which has 
similar roots and characteristics. It 
grows well in open lands and in forests 
of large trees, the underbrush being all 
cleared off. I have had it grown luxu- 
riantly even in beech woods, where the 
roots are superficial, in the crotches of 
roots and close to the trunks of trees. 
The hay is of high quality, and the 
young grass contains a larger per cen- 
tage of nutritive digestable matter than 
any other grass. It thrives well without 
any renewal on the same ground for 
thif ty-five, nay forty years ; how much 
longer, I am not able to say, It is 
easily exterminated when the land is 
desired for other crops. Is there any 
other grass for which so much can be 
said? 



RED TOP GRASS 

(Agrostis Vulgaris.) 




Red Top Grass. 

This is the best grass of England, 
the herd grass of the Southern States ; 
not in honor of any man, but probably, 
because so well adapted to the herd. It 



is called also Fine Top, Burden's and 
Borden's Grass. Varying greatly in 
characters, according to soil, location, 
climate and culture, some botanists 
have styled it A. Polijino7^pha. It grows 
two to three feet high, and I have mown 
it when four feet high. It grows well 
on hill tops and sides, in ditches, gullies 
and marshes, but delights in moist 
bottom land. It is not injured by over- 
flows, though somewhat prolonged. In 
marshy land it produces a very dense, 
strong network of roots capable of sus- 
taining the weight of men and animals 
walking over it. 

It furnishes considerable grazing dur- 
ing warm "spells" in winter, and in 
spring and summer an abundant supply 
of nutrition, It has a tendency, being 
very hardy, to increase in density of 
growth and extent of surface, and will 
continue indefinitely, though easily 
subdued by the plow. 

Cut before maturing seed, it makes a 
good hay and large quantity. It seems 
to grow taller in the Southern States 
than it does further North, and to make 
more and better hay and grazing. Red 
Top and Timothy, being adapted to the 



88 



illCHAKD FROfSCHEK^S ALMANAC AND (^ARt)EN MANTJAL 



same soil and maturing at the same 
time do well together, and produce an 
excellent hay. But the Eed Top will 
finally root oat Timothy, and if past- 
ured much it will do so sooner. 
Sow about two bushels (28 lbs.) per 



acre, if alone, in September, October, 
February, or March; if with Timothy 
for hay, from 6 to 10 pounds; if with 
other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 pounds. 
It is an excellent pasture grass, and 
will grow on almost any kind of soil. 



KENTUCKY BLUE GRASS 




Kentuckv Blue Grass. 



(Poa Pratensis.) 

This is also called 
smooth meadow 
grass, spear grass, 
and green grass, all 
three very appropri- 
ate, characteristic 
names. But Blue is 
a misnomer for this 
grass. It is not blue, 
but green as grass, 
and the greenest of 
grasses. The P. com- 
pressa, flat-stalked 
meadow grass, wire 
grass, blue grass is 
blue, 'the true blue' 



grass from which 
the genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in 
the Eastern States as June grass, al- 
though esteemed in some parts of 
America as the best of all pasture grass- 
es, seems not to be considered very 
valuable among English farmers except 
in mixtures. It is certainly a very de- 
sirable pasture grass however. Its very 
narrow leaves, one, two or more feet 
long, are in such profusion, and cover 
the ground to such depth with their 
luxuriant growth, that a mere descrip- 
tion could give no one an adequate idea 
of its beauty, quantity, and value ; that 
is on rich land. On poor, sandy land, 
it degenerates sadly, as do other things 
uncongenially located. 

Perennial, and bearing cold and 
drought well, it furnishes grazing a large 
part of the year. It is specially valuable 
as a winter and spring grass for the 
South. To secure the best winter results, 
it should be allowed a good growth in 
early fall, so that the ends of the leaves, 
being killed by the frost, afford an ample 



covering for the under-part which con- 
tinue to grow all winter, and afford a 
good bite whenever required by sheep, 
cattle, hogs and horses. In prolonged 
summer drought it dries completely, so 
that, if fired, it would burn off clean. 
But this occurs in Kentucky, where in- 
deed it has seemed without fire, to dis- 
appear utterly; yet, when rain came, 
the bright green spears promptly re- 
carpeted the earth. 

With its underground stems and many 
roots, it sustains the heat and drought 
of the Southern States as well as those 
of Kentucky, where indeed it is sub- 
jected to severer trials of this kind than 
in the more Southern States. In fact, 
it bears the vicissitudes of our climate 
about as well as Bermuda grass, and is 
nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass grows well on hill tops, 
or bottom lands, if not too wet and too 
poor. It may be sown any time from 
September to April, preferably perhaps 
in the latter half of February, or early 
in March. The best catch I ever had 
was sown the 20th of March, on un- 
broken land, from which trash, leaves, 
etc., had just been burned. The surface 
of the land should be cleaned of trash 
of all kinds, smooth, even ; and if re- 
cently plowed and harrowed, it should 
be rolled also. The last proceeding is 
for compacting the surface in order to 
prevent the seed from sinking too deep 
in the ground. Without harrowing or 
brushing in, many of them get in too 
deep to come up, even when the surface 
of the land has had the roller over it. 
The first rain after seeding will put them 
in deep enough, as the seeds are very 
minute, and the spears of grass small as 
fine needles, and therefore unable to 



POR *Ht SOUTHERN STATeS. 



89 



get out from und'er heavy cover. These 
spears are so small as to be invisible, 
except to close examination ; and in 
higher latitudes, this condition con- 
tinues through the first year. Thus, 
some who have sown the blue grass 
seed, seeing the first year no grass, 
imagine they have been cheated, plant 
some other crop, and probably lose 
what close inspection would have shown 
to be a good catch. This, however, is 
not apt to occur iu the Southern tier of 



States, as the growth here is more rapid. 
The sowing mentioned above, made on 
the 20th of March, came up promptly, 
and in three months the grass was from 
six to ten inches high. One year here 
gives a finer growth and show than two 
in Kentucky, or any other State so far 
North. 

Sown alone, 20 to 26 pounds, that is 2 
bushels, should be used ; in mixtures, 4 
to 6 pounds. 



ENGLISH OR PERENNIAL RYE GRASS 



(Lolium Perenne.) 



d^^^ 




English Rye Grass 



This is the 
first grass cul- 
tivated in Eng- 
land over two 
centuries ago, 
and at a still 
more remote 
period in 
France. It was 
long more 
widely known 
and cultivated 
than any other 
grass, became 



adapted to a great variety of soils and 
conditions, and a vast number (seventy 
or more) of varieties produced, some of 
which were greatly improved, while 
others were inferior and became 
annuals. Introduced into the United 
States in the first quarter of the current 
century, it has never become very 
popular, although shown by the sub- 
joined analysis of Way not to be de- 
ficient in nutritive matter. In 100 parts 
of the dried grass cut in bloom were 



albuminoids 11.85, fatty matters 3.17, 
heat-producing principles 42.24, wood 
fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more recent 
analysis of Wolff and Knopp, allowing 
for water, gives rather more nutritive 
matter than this. 

It grows rapidly, and yields heavy 
crops of seed ; makes good grazing, and 
good hay. But, as with all the Rye 
grasses, to make good hay, it must be 
cut before passing the blossom stage, as 
after that it deteriorates rapidly. The 
roots being short, it does not bear 
drought well, and exhausts the soil, 
dying out in a few years. In these re- 
si)ects it is liable to the same objections 
as Timothy. The stem, one to two feet 
high, has four to six purplish joints and 
as many dark green leaves ; the flexions 
spiked panicle, bearing the distant 
spikelets, one in each bend. 

It should be sown in August or Sep- 
tember, at the rate of twenty-five or 
thirty pounds, or one bushel seed per 
acre. 



TALL MEADOW OAT GRASS 



Evergreen grass in Virginia, and other 
Southern States, and it is the Tall Oat 
{Avena elatior) of Linseus. It is closely 
related to the common oat, and has a 
beautiful open panicle, leaning slightly 
to one side. "Spikelets two flowered, 



{Arrhenatherum Avenaceum.) 

and a rudiment of a third, open ; lowest 
flower staminate or sterile, with a long 
bent awn below the middle of the back. " 
-(Flint.) 

It is widely naturalized and well adapt- 
ed to a great variety of soils. On sandy, 



90 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMa:^AO AND GARDEN MANtJAL 



or gravelly soils, it succeeds ad mirablj^ 
growing two or three feet high. On 
rich, dry up- 
land it grows 
from five to 
seven feet 
high. It has 
an abundance 
of perennial, 
long fibrous 
roots, pene- 
trating deeply 
in the soil, 
being, there- 
fore, less affec- 
ted by drought 
orcold, and en- 
abled to yield a 
large quantity 
of foliage, win- 
ter and sum- 
mer. These ad- 
vantages ren- 
der it one of 
the very best grasses for the South, 
both for grazing (being evergreen) and 
for hay, admitting of being cut twice a 
year. It is probably the best winter 
grass that can be obtained. 

It will make twice as much hay as 
Timothy, and containing a greater 
quantity of albuminoids and less of heat- 
producing principles, it is better adapted 
to the uses of the Southern farmer, 
while it exhausts the surface soil less, 
and may be grazed indefinitely, except 




Tall Meadow Oat Grass. 



after mowing. To make good hay it 
must be '^ut the instant it blooms, and, 
after being cut, must not get wet by dew 
or rain, w^hicli damages it greatly in 
quality and appearance. 

For green soiling, it may be cut four 
or five* times with favorable seasons. 
In from six to ten days after blooming, 
the seeds begin to ripen and fall, the 
upper ones first. It is, therefore, a little 
troublesome to save the seed. As soon 
as those at the top of the panicle ripen 
sufficiently to begin to drop, the heads 
should be cut off and dried, when the 
seeds will all thresh out readily and be 
matured. After the seeds are ripe and 
taken off, the long abundant leaves and 
stems are still green, and being mowed 
make good hay. 

It may be sown in March or April, 
and mowed the same season ; but for 
heavier yield, it is better to sow in Sep- 
tember or October. Along the more 
southernly belt, from the 31^ parallel 
southward, it may be sown in November 
and onward till the middle of December. 
Whenever sown it is one of the most 
certain grasses to have a good catch. 
Not less than two bushels (24 pounds) 
per acre should be sown. Like Timothy, 
on inhospitable soils, the root may 
sometimes become bulbous. The aver- 
age annual nutrition yielded by this 
grass in the Southern belt, is probably 
twice as great as in Pennsylvania and 
other Northern States. 



JOHNSON GRASS 



[Soi^ghum 

This has been called Cuba grass, 
Egyptian grass. Means grass, Alabama 
and Guinea grass, etc. 

It seems pretty w^ell agreed now, how- 
ever, to call it Johnson grass, and leave 
the name Guinea grass for the Panicum 
iamentornm, to which it properly be- 
longs. 

It is true that in Mr. Howard's pam- 
phlet, as well as in many periodicals and 
books, and in letters and common usage, 
this grass has been far more generally 
called Guinea grass than the true Guinea 



halopense.) 

I grass itself, thus causing vast confusion. 
j It is, therefore, assuredly time to call 
I each by its right name. Johnson grass 
is perennial and has cane-like roots, or 
more properly, underground stems, 
from the size of a goose-quill to that of 
the little finger. These roots are tender, 
and hogs are fond of and thrive on them 
in winter. The roots literally fill the 
ground near the surface, and every joint 
is capable of developing a bud. Hence 
the grass is readily propagated from 
root cutting. It is also propagated from 



i'O-R TfiE SOtJTHEHN STaDeS. 



^1 



the seeds, but not always so certainly ; 
for in some localities many faulty seeds 
are produced, and in other places no 
seeds are matured. Before sowing- the 
seeds, therefore, they should be tested, 
as should all grass seeds indeed, in order 
to know what proportion will germinate, 
and thus what quantity per acre to sow. 
One bushel of a good sample of this seed 
is sufficient for one acre of land. 

The leaf, stalk and panicle of this 
grass resemble those of other sorghums. 
It grows on any land where corn will 
grow ; and like the latter, the better the 
land the heavier the crop. On rich land 
the culms attain a size of over half an 
inch in diameter, and a height of seven 
feet. It should be cut while tender, 
and then all live stock are fond of it; 
for a few weeks are sufficient to render 
it so coarse and hard that animals refuse 
it, or eat sparingly. 

A few testimonials are here quoted to 
give an idea of the productiveness and 
value of this plant. In a letter published 
in the Rural Carolinian for 1874, Mr. N. 
B. Moore, who had for more than forty 
years grown crops, speaks of this grass 
under the name of Guinea grass. 

"My meadow consists of one hundred 
acres of alluvial land, near Augusta. 
* * * In winter I employ but four men, 
who are enough to work my packing- 
press ; in summer, when harvesting, 
double that number. In autumn I 
usually scarify both ways with sharp, 



steel-toothed harrows, and sow over the 
stubble a peck of red clover per acre, 
which, with volunteer vetches, comes 
off about the middle of May. The second 
yield of clover is uniformly eaten up by 
grasshoppers. The top roots remain to 
fertilize the then coming Guinea grass, 
which should be but from two to three 
feet high. =" * * On such land as 
mine, it will afford three or four cuttings 
if the season is piopitious. I use an 
average of five ton 3 of gypsum soon 
after the first cutting, and about the 
same quantity of the best commercial 
fertilizers, in March and April. * * * 
The grass, which is cut before noon, is 
put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, 
before sun-down." 

Mr. Moore's income from this field 
was from seven thousand to ten thou- 
sand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says : "It is 
undoubtedly the most profitable soiling 
plant yet introduced, and also promises 
to be the plant for our Southern hay 
stacks, provided it can be cut every 
three or four weeks." 

Note.— Eecognizing all the above, I 
would say, that great care must be taken 
not to sow this grass near cultivated 
lands. If done, it should not be allowed 
to go to seed, as the wind will blow them 
off from the stalks, and when it gets 
amongst cane or other crops it causes 
a great deal of trouble. It is almost im- 
possible to get it out of the land. 



RESCUE GRASS 

(Ceratochloa australis or Bromus ScUraderii.) 



It is an annual winter grass. It varies 
in the time of starting growth. I have 
seen it ready for mowing the first of 
October and furnish frequent cuttings 
till April. Again, it may not start be- i 
fore January, nor be ready to cut till 
February. This depends upon the 
moisture and depression of temperature. | 
When once started, its growth, after 
the successive cuttings or grazings, is 
very rapid. It is tender, very sweet, 



and stock eat it greedily. It makes also 
a good hay. It produces an immense 
quantity of leaves. On loose soil some 
of it may be pulled out by animals graz- 
ing it. I have seen it bloom as early as 
November when the season had favored 
it, and no grazing or cutting were per- 
mitted. Oftener it makes little start 
before January. But whether late or 
early starting, it may be grazed or 
mowed frequently, until April, it still 



n 



feiCHAED FEO:fSCHER^S AtMAJfAC ANl) (3-AEt>EN MANUAL 



will mature seed. It has become natu- 
ralized in limited portions of Texas, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and 
perhaps other States . It is a very pretty 
grass in all its stages ; and especially so 
when the culms, two or three feet high, 
are gracefully bending the weight of the 
diffuse panicle with its many pedicelled 
flattened spikelets, each an inch or more 
long and with twelve to sixteen flowers. 
I would not, however, advise sowing 
this grass on poor land with the expec- 
tation of getting a remunerative return. 
It tillers abundantly under favorable 
conditions. 




Rescue Grass. 



JAPAN CLOVER 

{Lespedeza Striata.) 




Japan Clover. 

There is now so much enquiry about 
this plant, so much confusion, lack of 
knowledge and confounding with or 
mistaking for it another worthless na- 
tive species, and also the same errors 
in regard to a small genuine clover, 
that it is deemed proper to "give some 
correct information on the subject. 

HISTORY. 

To botanists this plant has been 
known tor many generations in its 
native habitat in China and other 
eastern parts of Asia. Finding its 
way to Japan it encountered congenial 
climate and soil, and rapidly spread 



over the entire country occupying all 
waste places, which it has continued 
to possess and improve for much more 
than a century. Here as on the con- 
tinent, it was of dwarfish habit and 
received a name indicative of the fact. 

Finally a few seeds, arriving in the 
United States, germinated, contested, 
a few feet of soil with other native and 
exotic plants that had long pre-occu- 
pied the land. 

It gained strength and increased in 
yield of seed till becoming somewhat 
abundant, it commenced its westward 
invasion, simultaneously extending its 
conquests northward and southward, 
firmly holding all conquered territory. 
Since 1870 its strides westward have 
been immense. It now extends from 
the Atlantic seaboard across the Mis- 
sissippi, and its out-posts are pushed 
far towards the western border of 
Texas. 

Denuded, soil-less hill tops, sandy 
plains, gravelly slopes, bottoms and 
banks of washes and gullies, pine 
thickets, open woods, fields, dry and 
damp soils, all seem as if specially 
created for its home. It seizes upon all 
with equal facility. 

It maintains its dwarfish habit on 
sands, .gravels and other spots too poor 
to produce any other vegetation, densely 
covering the surface with its green robe 
and affording delighted live stock with 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



93 



delicious Dutritious grazing for four to 
eigiit months' of the year. But on richer 
soil it doffs the dwarf and dons the tree 
stjde justifying the American name of 
"bush clover." sending its long tap root 
deep down in the subsoil and its stem 
two to three feet up into the light and 
air, with its many branches thickly set 
with leaves, inviting tooth and blade. 

It attains here on rich or medium soil 
protected from live stock a magnitude 
that could not have been imagined by 
one seeing it in its far eastern home. It 
takes possession not only of unoccupied 
land and pine thickets but grows among 
sedges, grasses, briers and weeds, com- 
pletely eradicating many species of 
noxious grasses and weeds. It subdues 
even broom grass and holds equal con- 
test with Bermuda grass ; in some local- 
ities one yielding, in other localities the 
other succumbing, while in other spots 
both maintain equal possession ; or one 
year ojie may seem to rule, and the next 
year the other. 

VALUE. 

On sands, gravels, or denuded clay 
hill tops no other plant known to me is 
so valuable for grazing. Taking a suc- 
cession of ten years, the same assertion 
would not be far out of the way for rich 
lands while few forage plants on these 
would yield so much or so valuable hay. 

The analysis of red clovqr gives 16 per 
cent albujninoids and 41 carbohydrates. 
The average of two analyses of Japan 
clover gives 15.85 albuminoids and 56 
carbohydrates, placing it above red 
clover in nutritive value. It is 

SUPERIOR TO OTHER FORAGE PLANTS, 

in several important particulars not 
generally observed by the careless 
stock-man. 1. The growing plant con- 
tains less moisture than any other very 
valuable forage plant with perhaj^s a 
single exception. Hence we never hear 
of animals having hoven or bloat or 
scours from eating this plant as when 
they have free access to red clover, peas 
and many grasses. 2. AVe have never 
yet found on the Japan clover any 
fungous growths which are so common 
on other plants as to cause many deaths 



annually among animals grazing on 
them or fed with the hay. 3. Heavy graz- 
ing for a few weeks destroj^s the clovers, 
lucerne and most of the grasses, while 
this plant may be grazed however close- 
ly, whether the season be wet or pro- 
longed drouth prevail, without damage. 

4. There is less difficulty of obtaining a 
catch with this plant than most others. 
The seed may be scattered on bare, 
poor, barren ground, rich soil, among 
weeds and dead grass or in March on 
small grain sown the previous autumn 
or winter and a catch will be obtained. 

5. The grain being harvested when 
ripe does not injure the Lespedeza; 
which is ready for the mower through 
September and October. 6. It is more 
easily cured than the clovers, pea vines 
and many grasses. 7. It does not lose 
the foliage in curing as do clovers, peas 
and some other plants. 8. It furnishes 
good grazing from May, some years last 
of March till killed by frost in October 
or November. 

PRODUCT OF HAY. 

On medium to good land it ranges 
from one to three tons per acre; and 
this may be obtained after having dur- 
ing the summer harvested from the same 
land a good crop of grain and straw. 

QUALITY. 

Some of our farmers, who have been 
mowing Lespedeza striata for five to ten 
years reganl it as the soundest, best, 
most wholesome and i)alatable hay they 
ever used. These mowings have ranged 
from two to three hundred tons on 
single farms in one season. Yet no 
complaint as to quality, or relish of 
animals for it, or as to its nutritive 
value and good effect on the stock has 
ever reached us. Those who have used 
it longest and in largest quantities and 
kept animals— cattle, sheep, horses and 
mules— in best condition commend it 
most. We have now before us a beauti- 
ful sample of this hay from Louisiana 
being from a crop of i)erhaps oOO tons 
mowed last autumn. 

SEEDING. 

A measured half bushel of seed per 
acre may be sown broad-cast the first 



94 



EICHAED FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



week in March south of parallel 32'^ of 
latitude, a few days later as we x^roceed 
northward for each degree or two. Sown 
in the fall or winter it springs up, but 
freezes often throw it out and destroy 
it. As already stated it germinates and 
grows well on land in any condition, if 
the surface is not so loose as to let the 
seed sink too deep. When land has been 
prepared for or sown in grain, the winter 
rains put it in about the best condition 
for growing this plant for heavy crops 
of hay. 

All our remarks on this plant, as 
found in our Southern States, are based 
on what we have seen and learned of it 
in a belt lying between 3Qh^ and 3i^ of 
latitude. 

The only 

COMPLETE PROOF 

of the value of a forage plant is found in 
the concurrence of chemical analysis 
and the observation and experience of 
the stockman. When the relish of an 
animal for the forage is keen, the health 
preserved and improved, growth pro- 
moted, a maximum quantity of excellent 
beef or mutton or pork, and, if superior, 
milk and butter, are obtained, we cer- 
tainly have an admirable food plant. 
The judgment of the cow, the convic- 
tions of the farmer arising from his 
experiences independent of, and indeed 

BURR C 

I Medic ago 
This variety of clover was brought 
from Chili to California, and thence to \ 
the States, under the uame of California j 
Clover, It is often taken for Lucerne, 
which name is wrongly applied. The | 
Burr Clover has only two or three yellow ! 
blossoms in each cluster, while Lucerne : 
has many blue blossoms in an elongated ! 
Lead. It furnishes good grazing from ' 



in utter ignorance of any chemical 
analysis, confirming the decisions of the 
chemist, give us the best of all evidences 
of the value of forage. And all these 
we have in this case. Japan clover is 
also a great 

AMELIORATOR AND FERTILIZER. 

Its abundant, long tap-roots decaying 
render the soil porous and leave in it 
much nitrogenous material and humus. 
It releases and brings up from the sub- 
soil valuable plant food ; the ashes con- 
taining nearly 40 per cent, potash, 29.- 
60 oxide lime, 7.82 sulphuric acid, 7.54 
phosphoric acid— all most valuable ele- 
ments in plant life and growth. Soils 
are thus renovated, slopes prevented 
from washing, gullies filled, moisture 
solicited and retained, atmospheric fer- 
tilizers gathered and garnered ; bald, 
barren wastes covered with living green 
to fill the stomach, delight the eye and 
cheer the heart. 

It should have been stated that this 
plant has eradicated over large areas 
the much detested helenium or bitter 
weed, which so often damages the flavor 
of the milk of cows eating it while 
grazing. It is believed that it extermi- 
nates also two or three plants that are 
fatally poisonous to cattle and horses. 

Price, per bushel of 25 lbs., %^ ; h bush., 
S3. 00 ; per pound, 30 cts. 

LOVER. 

Macidata.) 
February till April or May, It is good 
for grazing and hay. As there is no way 
for removing the seeds from the pods of 
spotted medic, it is necessary to sow 
the burr like pods, say one-half bushel 
per acre. The planting should be done 
early in fall, so the pods may have time 
to rot and release the seeds. " Should be 
covered very lightly. 



BERMUDA GRASS. 

{Cijnodon Dactylon.) 
Almost everybody living in this section , propagated by the roots. 
of the country knows this grass; it is 
planted as a Lawn grass, and nothing 
will stand the sun better, or will make 
a t)rettier carpet, when kept short, than 
this grass. It is also very valuable as a 
pasture and hay grass. It is only lately 
that I have been able to obtain the seed 
of this grass, which heretofore had to be 



Six pounds 
will sow an acre. Should be i)lanted in 
S|)ring, but can also be sown later. Un- 
der the most favorable circumstances it 
takes from 20 to 25 days to sprout; 
requires damp weather and hot sun ; but 
when once up it grows very rapidly. 

Price, SI. 50 per lb; in lots of 10 lbs. 
and over, $1.25, per lb. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



95 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. If applied 
to localities North of here, the time of planting will not be quite so early in spring, 
and earlier in fall. For instance : the directions for January will answer for Feb- 
ruary in the Northern part of this State, and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkan- 
sas. In autumn, directions for September can be followed in August. In those 
sections very little can be planted in November and December. 

JANUARY. 



Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, 
Parsnips and Leeks, the early varieties 
of Radish, and for the last crop, the 
Black Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. 
Ruta Baga may also be sown, for table 
use later in Si)ring, 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broc- 
coli, Kohlrabi, and early Cauliflower; 
the best sown in a frame to be trans- 
planted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for 
cutting, should be sown this month. 
Sow Roquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared 
already, make it at once to sow Egg- 
Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown 
during this month. Plant Peas for a 
general crop, towards the end of the 
month the Extra Early varieties may 
be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early Rose 
should not be planted before the latter 
end of this month. 



Divide and transplant Shallots. 
Transplant Cabbage plants sown in 
November. Onions, if not already set 
out, should be hurried with now, so they 
may have time to bulb. Those who de- 
sire to raise Onion sets, should sow the 
seed towards the end of this month, as 
they may be used for setting out early 
in the fall, and can be sold sooner than 
those raised from seed. Creole seed is 
the only kind which can be used to raise 
sets from. Northern seed will not make 
sets. This I know from experience. 
Asparagus roots should be set out this 
month. 

Red Oats can be sown. I consider 
these and the German Millet the two 
best annual forage plants for Louisiana. 
— Cucumbers can be planted in the hot- 
bed; they are mostly planted here dur- 
ing November and December, but if the 
hot-bed is properly made, those planted 
in this month will bear better than 
those planted in November. 



FEBRUARY 



All winter vegetables can be sown this 
month, such as Spinach, Mustard, Car- 
rots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks. Also, 
the early varieties of Radishes and 
Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss 
Chard and Kohlrabi. 

Sow, for succession. Lettuce, Cabbage 
and early Cauliflower; if the season is 
favorable, and the month of April not 
too dry, the latter may succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should 
be transplanted; Shallots divided and 
set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Roquette, Chervil, Pars- 
ley, Cress and Celery for seasoning. 



Peas of all kinds can be planted, es- 
pecially the early varieties. The late 
kinds should b^s sown in January, but 
they may be planted during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general 
crop of Potatoes. On an average they 
will succeed better when planted during 
this, than during any other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted ; tender 
varieties best sown in a frame, and 
transplanted into the open ground af- 
terwards. 

Asparagus roots should be planted; 
this is the proper month to sow the seed 
of this vegetable. 



96 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANA.C AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Plants in the hot-bed will require at- 
tention ; give air when the sun shines, 
and the weather is pleasant. If too 
thick, thin out, so they may become 
sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with 
this month ; Cucumbers, Squash and 
Melons may be tried, as they often suc- 
ceed; if protected by small boxes, as 
most gardeners protect them, there is 
no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end 



of this month. For market, the Adams 
Exra Early and Early White Flint are 
planted. I recommend the Sugar va- 
rieties for family use ; they are just as 
large as those mentioned, and Stovrel's 
Evergreen is as large as any variety 
grown. 

Mangel Wurzel and Sugar Beet should 
be sown in this month for stock. Sweet 
Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprout- 
ing, so as to have early slips. 



MARCH 



Sow Beets, Radish, Cabbage, early 
varieties ; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Spinach 
Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and 
Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting. Parsley, 
Roquette, Cress and Chervil. The lat- 
ter part of the month sow Endive. Of 
Lettuce, the Royal Cabbage and Perpig- 
nan ; the "White Coss is a favorite varie- 
ty for spring; the Butterhead will run 
into seed too quickly, ard should not be 
sown later than the middle of February 
in this latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole 
Beans. For Lima Beans better to wait 
till towards the end of the month, as 
they rot easily when the ground is not 
warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra 
can be planted. The remark in regard 
to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. 
Early varieties of Peas may still be 
planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers 
can beset out in the open ground, and 
seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet 
Corn. 

AP 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, 
Sweet Corn, Cucumbers, Squash, Melons 
and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Radish, 
Lettuce, Mustard, Endive, Roquette, 
Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for 
cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Pepper 
for succession. It is rather late to sow 
Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the 



Potatoes can be planted ; all depends 
upon the season. Some years they do 
as well as those planted during last 
month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, 
and therefore very few are planted for 
shelling purposes. With a little care, 
however, they can be kept, but they 
ought not to be planted before the first 
of August, so that they may ripen^when 
the weather gets cooler. When the 
season is favorable leave them out till 
dry ; gather the pods and ex|)0se them 
a few days to the sun. It is best to shell 
them at once, and after they are shelled 
put them to air and sun again for a few 
days longer. Sacks are better to keep 
them in than barrels and boxes. The 
Red and White Kidney are generally 
the varieties used for drying. Beans 
raised in spring are hard to keep, and if 
intended for seed they should be put up 
in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little 
camphor st)rinkled between them. 

Sweet Potatoes should be planted. 



RIL. 

early varieties only can be successfully 
used. Kohlrabi can still be sown, but 
it is best to sow it thinly in drills a foot 
ai)art, and thin out to four inches in the 
rows. 

Towards the end of this month a 
sowing of the late Italian Giant Cauli- 
flower can be made. It is very larj^e, 
and takes from eight to nine months 
before it matures, so it has to be sown 



FOR THE SOUTHEEN STATES. 



97 



early. It is always best to make a 
couple of sowings, so that in case one 
should fail the othe r may be used. This 
variety is hardier than the I^rench and 
German kinds. A good plan is to sow 
the seed in boxes, elevated two feet or 
more above the ground, as it will keep 
the cabbage-fly of. The plants should 
be overlooked daily, and all green cab- 
bage worms or other vermin removed. 

Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, 
can be planted out. Early Irish Pota- 
toes will be fit to dig now, and the ground 
they are taken out of may be planted 
with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

MA 

Very few varieties of vegetables can 
be sown during this month. Many of 
the winter varieties will not do well if 
sown now. The ground should now be 
occupied with growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken 
up. Corn, Melons, Cucumbers, Squash 
and Pumpkins may be planted. 

Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except 
the Creole Cabbage seed, can be sown 
this month. It is supposed to stand the 
heat better than other varieties, but it 
makes only loose heads and runs up 1o 
seed as early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Kadish and ! 
Endive should be sown. Lettuce re- 
quires much water during hot w^eather, I 
and, if neglected, will become hard and ! 
tasteless. The Perpignan is the best : 
kind for summer use. Okra can still be I 
sown. I 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery { 
is to be made this month. The seed { 
requires to be shaded, and, if the I 
weather is dry, should be regularly i 



Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the 
Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this 
month. The ground ought to be well 
plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of 
seed is the quantum to be sown per acre. 
It will be well to roll the ground after 
sowing, and the seed will require no 
other covering. If no roller is handy, 
some brush tied together ought to be 
passed over the ground sown. For hay 
it should be cut when in flower. Every 
planter should give it a trial. 



Y, 

watered. Late Italian Cauliflower 
should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the 
corn, or the crowders in rows ; the latter 
are the best to be used green. If they 
are sown for fertilizing purposes, they 
are sown one bushel per acre, and 
plowed under when the ground is well 
covered ; or sometimes they are left till 
fall, when they commence to decay and 
then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, 
taking advantage of an occassional rain ; 
if it does not rain they have to be 
watered. The top of Shallots will com- 
mence t'^ get dry; this indicates that 
they are fit to take up. Pull them up 
and expose to the sun for a few days, 
and then store them away in a dry, airy 
place, taking care not to lay them too 
thick, as they are liable to heat. Lima 
or Pole Beans can be planted; the 
Southern Prolific is the best variety for 
late planting. 



JU 

This month is similar to the last, that 
is, not a great deal can be sown. The 
growing crops will require attention, as 
weeds grow fast. Plant Corn for the last 
supply of roasting ears. A few Water 
and Musk Melons may be planted. 
Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkins 
planted this month generally do very 
well, but the first requires an abundance 
of water if the weather is dry. 



NE. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be 
' planted during this month. Continue 
j to set out Sweet Potato vines. 

Sow Yellow^ and White Summer Rad- 
ish ; sow Endive for Salad ; this is raised 
more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires 
more care than most people are willing 
I to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an 
hour in water, take them out and put 



•98 



KICHARD FEOTSCHEE'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



them in a piece of clotli, and place in a 

cool spot— under the cistern, or, if con- 
venient, in an ice box. Keep the cloth 
moist, and in two or three days the 
seeds \Yill sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening, and give a 
.watering. 

. If the seed is sown without being 
sprouted, ants will be likely to carry it 
away before it can germinate, and the 
seedsman be blamed for selling seeds 
that did not grow. This sprouting has 
to be done from May to September, 
depending upon the weather. Should 
the weather be moist and cool in the 
fall, it can be dispensed with. Some 
sow late Cabbage for winter crop in this 
month, saying the plants are easier 



raised during this than the two following 
months. I consider this month too soon ; 
plants will become too hard and long- 
legged before they can be planted out. 
This is the last month to sow the Late 
Italian Cauliflower; towards the end 
the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can 
be sown. Some cultivators transplant 
them, when large enough, at once into 
the open ground; others plant them 
first into flowerpots and transplant 
them into the ground later. If trans- 
planted at this time, they will require 
to be shaded for a few days, till they 
commence to grow. 

I Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the 

{ latter part of this month. 



JULY 



Plant Pole Beans ; also, Bush Beans, 
towards the end of the month. Sow 
Tomatoes in the early part for the last 
crop. Some corn for roasting ears may 
still be planted. Cucumbers can be 
planted for pickling. Early Giant Cau- 
;Iiflower can be sown. Sow Endive. Let- 
'tiice, Yellow and White Sum mer Radish. 
Where the ground is new, some Turnips 
and Ruta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage 
should be commenced with after the 
loth of this month ; Superior Elat Dutch, 
Improved Drumhead, St. Denis, or 
Bonheuil and Brunswick are the leading 
kinds. It is hard to say which is the 
best time to sow, as our seasons differ so 
much— some seasons we get frost early, 
other seasons not before -January. Cab- 
bage is most easily hurt by frost when 
it is half grown ; when the plants are 
small, or when they are headed up, frost 
does not hurt much. It is always good 
to make two or three sowings. As a 
general thing, plants raised from seeds 
sown in July and August, give the most 
satisfaction ; they are almost certain to 
head. September, in my experience, is 
the most ticklish month ; as the seed 
sown in that month is generally only 
half grown when we have some frosts, 
and therefore, more liable to be hurt. 
But there are exceptions. Some years 
ago the seed sown in September turned 
out best. Seed sown at the end of Oc- 
tober and during November generally 



give good results. November is the 
proper month to sow for shipping. The 
surest way to sow is in a cold frame, to 
protect the plants from frosts which 
sometimes occur in December and Jan- 
uary. January, and the early part of 
February, is early enough to set out. 
Brunswick and Excelsior are the earli- 
est of the large growing kinds, and it 
should be sown in July and August, so 
that it may be headed up when the cold 
comes, as it is more tender than the Flat 
Dutch and Drumhead. The same may 
be said in regard to the St. Denis. All 
cabbages require strong, good soil ; but 
these two varieties particularly. Bruns- 
wick makes also a very good spring 
cabbage when sown at the end of Octo- 
ber. The standard varieties, the Supe- 
rior Flat Dutch and Improved Drum- 
head, should be sown at the end of this 
month and during next. It is better to 
sow plenty of seeds than to be short of 
plants. I would prefer one hundred 
plants raised in July and August, to four 
times that amount raised in September. 
It is very hard to protect the young 
plants from ravages of the fly. Strong 
tobacco water is as good as anything 
else for this purpose, or tobacco stems 
cut fine and scattered over the ground 
will keep them off to some extent. As 
the plants have to be watered, the 
smell of the tobacco will drive the flies 
awav. 






FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



99 



AUGUST. 



This is a very active month for garden- 
ing in the South. Plant Bush Beans, 
Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow 
late Cabbages and Drumhead Savoy, 
also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and 
Kale. The Early Italian Giant Cauli- 
flower may still be sov/n ; but now is 
the proper time to sow the Half Early 
Paris, Asiatic and other early varieties. 

Sow Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil, Let- 
tuce, Endive and Sorrel ; but, in case of 
dry weather, these seeds will have to be 
watered frequently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Rad- 
ishes, and commence to sow red varie- 
ties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long- 
French and Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the 
Black Spanish Eadish can be sown ; 
also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress ; the former 
will generally do well. All kinds of 
Turnips and Buta Bagas should be 
sown ; also. Kohlrabi. 



The seed of all kinds of Beets should 
be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots* 
can be sown ; but the sowiag of alB 
vegetables at this time of the year de- 
pends much upon the season. If we 
should have hot and dry weather, it is 
useless to do much, as seed cannot come 
up without being watered. White Solid 
Celery should be sown for a succession, 
and the Dwarf kinds for spring use. 

Shallots can be set out during this 
month ; also. Onion Sets, especially if 
they are raised from Creole seed. The 
early part of the month is the proper 
time to plant Red and White Kidney 
Beans, for shelling and drying for win- 
ter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Po- 
tatoes should be planted early this 
month i'or a winter crop, and the latest 
of Tomato plants should be set out, if 
not done last month. If Celery plants 
are set out during this month, they re- 
quire to be shaded. 



SEPTEMBER. 



Most of the seeds recommended for 
last month can be sown this month, and 
some more added. 

In the early part. Bush Beans can be 
planted, as they will bear before frost 
comes. Plant Extra Early and early 
varieties of Peas. Sow Radishes of all 
kinds, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify 
Eoquette, Chervil, Parsley, Sorrel, 
Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, Turnips, 
Kohlrabi, Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, 
Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the 15th of this month, Creole 
Onion seed can be sown. This is an im- 
portant crop, and should not be neglect- 
ed. If it is very dry, cover the bed, af- 
ter the seed has been sown, with green 
moss; it will keep the ground moist, 



and the seed will come up more regu- 
larly. The moss has to be taken off as 
the young plants m'kke their appear- 
ance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditch- 
es prepared for that purpose. Cauli- 
flower and Cabbage plants can be trans- 
planted if the weather is favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry. 
Spinach should be sown ; but it is use- 
less to do so if the weather is not suit- 
able. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much 
better to sow in August and transplant 
during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be 
divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 



OCTOBER. 



Artichokes should be dressed, the 
suckers or sprouts taken off and new 
plants made, 



Onion seed can still be sown ; but it 
is better to get the seed into the ground 
as soon as possible, so the plants get to 



100 



KICHARD FEOTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



be some size before the cold weather 
comes. 

Towards the end of the month Black 
Eye Marrowfat Peas can be planted; 
also, Eng-lish or Windsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, 
Brussels S{)routs, Kale, Spinach, Mus- 
tard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Sal- 
sify, Leek, Corn- Salad, Parsley, Ro- 
quette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Radish, Let- 
tuce, Endive and Parsnip. Shallots 
from the first i)lanting can be divided 
and set out again. Salsify does very 
finely here, but is generally sown too 
late ; this is the proper month to sov/ 
the seed. The ground should be mellow 
and have been manured last spring. It 
should be spaded up very deeply, as the 



size and smoothness of the roots depend 
upon the preparation of the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and 
if the season has been favorable by the 
end of the month, some may be earthed 
up. 

Sow Rye, Barley and Red Oats, Or- 
chard Grass, Red and White Clover, and 
Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants 
should be transplanted ; they cannot be 
left in the same spot for three or four 
years, as is done North. The Wilson's 
Albany, and Sucker State, are the fa- 
vorite varieties for the market. 

The AVilson's Albany do not make 
many runners here, but they form a 
stool, something like the plants of 
violets, and these stools have to be taken 
up and divided. 



NOVEMBER 



Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, 
Radish, Lettuce, Mustard, Roquette, 
Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Pars- 
ni[)s. Cress and Endive, also Turnij^s 
and Cabbage. Superior Flat Dutch and 
Improved Drumhead, sown in this 
month, make fine Cabbage in the spring. 
—Artichokes should be dressed, if not 
already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties 
of Peas. Frost does not hurt them as 
long as they are small, and during this 
time of the year they will grow but 
very slowly. English Beans can be 
planted ; frost does not hurt them, and. 



if not planted soon, they will not bear 
much. 

Manure for hot-beds should be looked 
after, and ought not to be over one 
month old. It should be thrown to- 
gether in a heap, and, when heated, 
forked over again, so the long and short 
manure will be well mixed. The first 
vegetables generally sown in the hot- 
beds are Cucumbers ; it is best to start 
them in two or three inch pots, and 
when they have two rough leaves, 
transplant them to their place; two 
good plants are sufficient under every 
sash. 



DECEMBER 



Not a great deal is planted during this j 
month, as the ground is generally occu- 
pied by the growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop; some 
Potatoes may be risked, but it is uncer- 
tain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Roquette, Radish, Car- 
rots, Lettuce, Endive and Cabbage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be 
sown in a frame or sheltered situation, 
to be transplanted in February into the 
open ground. Early Cabbages, such as 



York, Oxheart and Winningstadt, may 
be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes 
I will say that this is the month to sow 
them. The best kind for that purpose 
is the Extra Early Dwarf Red. it is 
really a good acquisition ; it is very 
dwarfish, very productive, and of good 
size, and bears the fruit in clusters, but 
will sell only for the first, as the fruit is 
not so large as the Livingston varieties, 
which come it) later. 



POU THte SOUTHERN Sl-'AT^ES. 



101 



FLOWER SEEDS. 



The following- list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contains all which is 
desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. I import them from one 
of the most celebrated growers in Prussia, and they are of the best quality. There 
are very few or no flower seeds raised in this country, and Northern houses, which 
publish large lists and catalogues, get them from just the same sources as myself; 
but they, on an average, sell much higher than I do. Some varieties, which are 
bi-en uial in Europe or North, flower here the first season ; in fact, if they do not, they 
generally do not flower at all, as they usually are destroyed by the continued long 
heat of summer. Some kinds grow quicker here and come to a greater perfection 
than in a more Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable seeds. The 
ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to bake after a rain. Some 
of the more delicate and finer varieties are better sown in boxes or seed pans, 
where they can be better handled and protected from hard rains or cold weather ; 
the other kinds do not transplant well, and are better sowm at once where they are 
to remain, or a few seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate transplanting into 
the garden without disturbing the plants, when large enough. Some have very 
fine seeds, which the mere pressing of the hand or spade to the soil will cover ; others 
may be covered one-fourth of an inch, according to their size. Watering should be 
done carefully, and if not done with a syringe, a watering pot, where the holes of 
the spout are very fine, should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, consideration 
should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties may be in the middle and 
the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, fifteen packages for one dollar, 
except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. All flow^er seeds in 
packages are mailed free of postage to the purchaser. Where there is more than 
one color, I generally import them mixed, as I find that most of my customers do 
not wish to purchase six packages, or more, of one variety, in order to get all the 
colors. One package of Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese Pink, German Stocks, 
Petunia, Portulaca, and others, will always contain an equal mixture of the best 
colors. 



Altliesi R»sea. Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. Can 
be sown from October till April. Very 
hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Alyssiiisft msii'itiiniiin. gweet 
Alyssam. Very free flowering plants, 
about six inches high, with white 
flowers ; very fragrant. Sow from Octo- 
ber till April. 

AaatiiJiinuiifi niajii§. Snapdragon. 
Choice mixed. Showy plant of various 
colors. About two feet high. Should be 
sown early, if perfect flowers are desired. 
Sow from October till March. 

Astei*. Queen Margaret. German 
Quilled. Perfect double quilled flower. 



of all shades, from white to dark purple 
and crimson. One and a half feet high. 

Aster. Trufaut's Pseony-Flowered 
Perfection. Large double peeony-shaped 
flow^ers, of fine mixed colors ; one of the 
best varieties. Two feet high ; sow from 
December till March. Asters should be 
sown in a box or in pots, and kept in a 
green-house, or near a window ; when 
large enough, transplant into the border. 
Take a shovel of compost and mix with 
the ground before planting. Put three 
to four plants together and they will 
show better. They can be cultivated in 
pots. " 

Adonis autumnalis. Flos Adonis 
or Pheasant's Eye. Showy crimson 



l02 



BicMARI) Fit(3fSdH£R^S ALMANAC AND GAEDEN MA^^UaL 





Amarantlius Salicifolius. Fouutain Plant. 



Trufauf s Pa?onv-Flowered Aster. 




Althea Rosea. 



German Qnilled Aster. Amaranthus Tricolor. 




Ainaranliiiis Caudatus. 



Double Daisy. 



-Ulonii autumnalis. 



Fob tHE SOtJTHlSllN STATES. 



103 




Cyelaiiien Persicuiii. 



flower, of long duration. One foot high. 
Sow from November till April. 

Aiiiaranltius caudatus. Love 
Lies Bleeding. Long red racemes with 
blood red flowers. Very graceful ; three 
feet high. 

Aiiiarantlius tricolor. Three- 
colored Amaranth. Very showy; cul- 
tivated on account of its leaves, which 
are green, yellow and red. Two to three 
feet high. 

AiinarantRius bicolor. Two-colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green varie- 
gated foliage ; good for edging. Two 
feet high. 

AiBiaraMthus Salicifolius. Foun- 
tain Plant. Eich colored foliage, very 
graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow 
from February till June. 

Aquileg:ia. Columbine. A showy 
and beautiful flower of different colors ; 
two feet high. Sow from October till 
March. Should be sown early if flowers 
are wished ; if sown late will not bloom 
till next season. 



Balsamiiia Horteiisis. Lady Slip- 
per. A well known flower of easy cul- 
ture. Kequires good ground to produce 
double flowers. ; 

Balsaiiiiiia. Improved Qamelia- 
flowered. Very double and beautiful 
colors. The strain which I offer of this 
variety is very fine-; but to have them 
perfect, they should not be sown too 
• soon. In rich ground and during dry 
weather they require plenty of water. 

Balsaiiiina camellia flora alba. 
Pure white flowers, used for bouquets ; 
about two feet high. Sow from Febru- 
ary till August. ;^^-. 

Bellis Pereiiiiis. Daisy. Finest 
double mixed variety; four iiichesliigh. 
From October till Jamjary. - 

Browallia elata major. A free 
blooming plant of about 12 inches in 
height, with very showy dark blue 
flowers. If sown in March it will flower 
all summer, but can also be sown in 
November potted and kept under glass, 
where it will begin to bloom in the- latter 



104 



mCHARl) FBOTSCHEB S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Celosia Cristata. 



Balsamina Camelia- Flowered. 



Calendula officinalis. 



FOR THE SOU 'I HERN SPATES, 



lOE 



part of December and continue all 
winter. 

Beg^oTiia ttiberosa. A very thank- 
ful green-house plant with tuberous 
roots and large showy pink, white or 
red flowers. It is of easy culture and 
can be kept out of doors in a half shady 
place after the 15th of April. Sow from 
October till March in flower pots. Price, 
per packet, 25 cents. 

Begonia Kex. A beautiful and 
showy greenhouse foliage plant of easy 
culture. Will do well out of doors during 
summer months, but requires a shady 
place. Sow like above. Price, per 
packet, 25 cents. 

Cacalia coce&siea. Scarlet Tassel 
Flower. A profuse flowering plant, with 
tassel-shaped flowers in cluster; one 
and a half feet. Sow February till May. 

Calendula officinalis. Pot Mari- 
gold. A i)lant which, properly speaking, 
belongs to the aromatic herbs, but 
sometimes cultivated for the flowers, 
which vary in different shades of yellow ; 
one and a half feet high. From January 
till April. 

Celosia cristata. Dwarf Cock's- 
comb. Well known class of flowers 
which are very ornamental, producing 
large heads of crimson and yellow 
flowers ; one to two feet high. Sow from 
February till August. 

Ciieirantlius Cheiri. Wall Flower. 
This flov/er is highly esteemed in some 
parts of Europe, but does not grow very 
perfectly here, and seldom, produces the 
large spikes of double flowers which 
are very fragrant. Two feet high. No- 
vember till March. 

Canipanisia 8i>eci5liini. Bell- 
Flower, or Venus' Looking-Glass. Free 
flowering plants of different colors, from 
white to dark blue ; one foot high. Sow 
December till March. 

Centaurea eyaeeus. Bottle Pink. 
A hardy annual of easy culture, of vari- 
ous colors; two feet high. 

Centaurea suavoieots. Yellow, 
Sweet Sultan. December to April. 

Cineraria Eiybrida. A V)eautiful 
green-house plant. Seed should be sown 
in October or November, and they will 
flower in spring. Per package, 25 cents. 



Cineraria Maritima. A hand- 
some border plant, which is cultivated 
on account of its silvery white leaves. 
Stands our summer well. 

Coleus. A well known and beautiful 
bedding plant which can be easily prop- 
agated by seeds which produce differ- 
ent shades of colored plants. 

Cyclamen persicuvn. Alpine 
Violet. A green-house plant with tuber- 
ous or rather bulbous roots, blooming 
abundantly ; being possessed of very or- 
namental foliage and of easy culture it 
should notbe missing in any collection of 
green-house plants, Sow^ in August and 
September in pots ; transplant in small 
pots when large enough, and keep either 
in green-house or a room near the 
window, and give plenty of light and 
air. Keep Bulbs dry during summer. 
Price, per packet, 25 cents. 

Correopsis. (Calleoi-sis.) Bright 
Eye Dais5^. Handsome free blooming 
plants, of the easiest culture, 2 to 3 feet 
high, with yellow and brown daisy like 
flowers. December to March. 

ClirysantlieniuBti tricolor (cari- 
natum). Summer Chrysanthemum. 
Showy summer bloomers of different 
colors, 12 to 15 inches high. If grouped 
together they have a pleasing effect. 
Sow in March and April. 

]>iantlius BarKiiatus. Sw^eet Wil- 
liam. A well known plant which has 
been much improved of late years. 
Their beautiful colors make them very 
showy. Should be sown early, otherwise 
they will not flower the first spring ; one 
and a half feet high. October till April. 
]>ianthus Cliinensis. Chinese 
Pink. A beautiful class of annuals of 
various colors, which flower very pro- 
fusely in early spring and summer; one 
foot high. From October till April. 

Diantlius IIe€lde\vi^$;ii. Japan 
Pink. This is the most showy of any of 
the annual pinks. The flowers are very 
lar^e and of brilliant colors; one foot 
hi.t^h. Sow from October till April. 

Dianthus pluniaris. Border Pink. 
A fragrant pink used for edging. The 
flowers are tinged, generally pink or 
white, with a dark eye. Poes not flower 



106 



EICHAEI) J'ROi^SCHEK'S ALMANAC AND GAKDEN MANUAL 




riautluis Picotee. 



Diantbus Heddewiggii. 



e6r ^fiE SOUTHERN STATES. 



lO^ 



the first year ; two feet high. Sow from 
January till April. 

niaBithiis caryopliyllus. Carna- 
tion Pink. This is a well known and 
highly esteemed class of flowers. They 
are double, of different colors, and very 
fragrant ; can be sown either in fall or 
spring; should be shaded during mid- 
summer and protected from hard rains ; 
three to four feet high. November till 
April. 

DiantlBU!^ Picotee. Finest hybrids. 
Stage flowers saved from a collection 
of over r,(it) named varieties; per 
package, 5()c. 

DiaBitgBU^ piiBiiila. Early dwarf 
flowering Carnation. If sown early, this 
variety will flower the first season. 
They are quite dwarfish and flower very 
profusely. November till April. 

DelplBiBiatiBii IiBiperialas, fl. pi. 
Imperial flowering Larkspur. Very 
handsome variety of symmetrical form. 
Mixed colors ; bright red, dark blue and 
red stripes ; li feet high. 

HelplBBiBiiiiiB ajaeis. Rocket Lark- 
spur. Mixed colors; very showy; tvv'o 
and a half feet. 

DelpliBBBiBiBBi ClBineifBsis. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very 
pretty; one foot high. November till 
April. 

Note -None of the above three varie- 
ties transplant well, and are better sown 
at once where they are intended to re- 
main. 

Dahlia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
See-1 sown in the spring will flower by 
June. Very pretty colors ai'e obtained 
from seed ; the semi-double or single 
ones can be pulled up as they bloom; 
but those seeds which are saved from 
fine double varieties will produce a good 
percentage of doable flowers. Febru- 
ary till June. 

£sclfi§€lboltzia CaBifoB-iBBca. Cal- 
ifornia Poppy. A very free flowering 
plant, good for masses. Does not trans- 
plant well. One foot high. December 
till April. 

Craillai'daa bi(co8oB% Two-colored 
Gaillardia. Yery showy plants, which 
continue to flower for a long time. 
Flowers red, bordered with orange yel- 



low. One and a half feet high. January 
till April. 

Ciillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants 
which flower freely, of various colors. 
One foot. December till April. 

OoiiiplBB'eBBa alba and pBBB'pBirea. 
White and Crimson Batchelor Button 
or Globe Amaranth. Well known va- 
riety of flowers; very early and free 
flowering ; continue to flower for a lo)ig 
time. Two feet high. From February 
till August. 

OeB'aiBiuBii ZoBBale. Zonale Ger- 
anium. Seed saved from large flower- 
ing varieties of different colors ; should 
be sown in seed pans, and wheu large 
enough transplanted into pots, where 
they can be left, or transplanted in 
spring into the open ground. 

CreraBBiiiBBi pelar^oBiUiBiB. Large 
flowering Pelargonium, ypotted varie- 
ties, 25 cents per package. 

OeB'aiBBiiVBB odoB'afisslfiiBa. Apple- 
scented Geranium. Cultivated on ac- 
count of its fragrant leaves; 25 cents 
per package. Both of these kinds are 
pot plants, and requiie shade during 
hot weather. Should be sown during 
fall and winter. 

CrypsoplBila paBiicuiata. Gypso- 
phila. A graceful plant with white 
flovvers, which can be used for bouquets. 
One foot high. From December to 
April. 

IIelBotropauBiB« Mixed varieties 
with dark and light shaded flower. A 
well known plant, esteemed for the 
fragrance of its flowers, which are pro- 
duced during the whole summer in great 
profusion. This plant is generally prop- 
agated by cuttings, but can also be 
raised from seed. Should be sown in a 
hot-bed if sown early. 

MelBClBB'ySBBBBB RBB4>aB§trO$IBBn al- 

luBBBBi. White Everlasting Flower. 
Very showy double flowers. One and a 
half feet high. 

IlplielBB ysaana BBBOBBStBM>«»UBn aub- 
a-aiBBi. Ptcd Everlasting Flower. Very 
ornamental. One and a half feet high. 
December till April. Does not trans- 
plant well. 

Melaaaathus fl. pi. Double Flower- 
ing Sunflower. A well known plant, 



los 



liicfiAEt) fkotscher's almanac and gaeden manual 



with showy yellow flowers. The double 
is often cultivated in the flower garden. 
The single varieties are cultivated most- 
ly for the seed. They are said to be 
anti-malarious. Four feet high. Feb- 
ruary till May. 



Iberis amara. White Candytuft. 
A well known plant raised a good deal 
by florists for bouquets. Can be sown 
at different times to have a succession of 
flowers. One foot high. 




Early Dwarf Double Carnation Pink. 



Gaillardia Bieolor. 



Lobelia Erinus. 




Mathiola Annua. 




FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES, 



109 



Ibei'is umbelata rosea. Purple 

Candytuft. One foot. October till April. 

Lintim g^randilloi'uiii i-Bibrum. 

Scarlet Flax. A very pretty ])lant for 
masses or borders, with bright scarlet 
flowers, dark in the centre. One foot. 
January till April. 

LiOtielia eriiiiiLss. Lobelia. A very 
graceful plant with white and blue 
flowers, well adapted for hanging bas- 
kets or border. Half foot. October till 
March. 

Lycliiais claallcedoEiflica. Lychnis. 
Fine plants with scarlet, while and rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 

Ltipieiaus. Lupinus. Plants with 
spikes of flowers of various colors. 
Should be sown soon. Does not trans- 
plant well. Two feet. October till 
March. 

MathioSa aii&sisa. Ten weeks stocks. 
This is one of the finest annuals in cul- 
tivation. Large flowers of all colors, 
from white to dark blue or crimson. 
Should be sown in pots or pans, and 
when large enough transplanted into 
rich soil. One and. a quarter feet. Octo- 
ber till March. 

MeseiBitoryaiatSteaaiMBai crystaBBi- 
iiuiii. Ice plant. Neat plant with i(}y 
looking foliage. It is of spreading habit. 
Good for baskets or beds. One foot. 
February till March. 

Rlimulastigfrinus. Monkey flower. 
Showy flowers of yellow and brown. 
Should be sown in a shady place. Does 
not transplant well. Half loot. Decem- 
ber till March. 

Matricaria capensis. Double 
Matricaria. White double flowers, re- 
sembling the Daisy, but smaller; are 
fine for bouquets; blooms very nearly 
the whole summer. Two feet. Decem- 
ber till March. 

Mimosa pudica. Sensitive Plant. 
A curious and interesting plant which 
folds up its leaves when touched. One 
foot. February till June. 

Miral>ilisjaBapa. Marvel of Peru. 
A well known plant of easy culture; 
producing fiowers of various colors. It 
forms a root which can be preserved 
from one year to another. February till 
June. Three feet. 




Blue Grove Love. 




Petunia Hybrida. 




Nigella Damascena. 



110 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Lychnis Chalcedonica. 





Geniniiim Pelargouium. 



Ice Plant. 




Double Matrinaria. 




Helichrysum Monstrosum Album. 



FOE THE SOUTHERN STATES, 



111 



Myosotis psiliistris. Forget-me- 
not. A fine little plant with small, blue, 
star-like flowers. Should have a moist, 
shady situation. Does not succeed so 
wTll here as in Europe, of which it is a 
native. Half foot high. December till 
March. 

NeFiBopisOsi SaBsigfi^is. Blue Grove 
Love. Plants of easy culture^ very 
pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright 
blue with white centre. One foot higli. 

MeBsi<[>5*lB8l5ii;' usaaciaSataie Large 
white flowers spotted Vv^ith violet. One 
foot high. December till April. 

Ni^ella daMistscejusa. Love in a 
Mist. Plants of easy culture, vv-ith light 
blue flowers. Does not transplant well. 
One foot high. December till April. 

Niereiii^erg-ia: gracilis. Nierem- 
bergia. Nice plants with delicate foli- 
age, and vsrhite flow^ers tinted with lilac. 
One foot high. November till April. 

^ajjOtSaera JLajiiarcliaaaiia. Eve- 
ning Primrose. Showy, large yellow 
flowers. December till April. Two feet 
high. 

Paa''**^*^!" l§«[i»8sitBsifeB'BB9ii, Double 
flowering Pop]>y. Of different colors; 
very showy. 

Paj>aver I'ai.^iiBicHliis llo^verecl. 
Double fringed flowers; very showy. 
Cannot be transplanted. Two feet high. 
October till March. 

PettiHBa SiybB'ida. Petunia. Splen- 
did mixed hybrid varieties. A very dec- 
orative plant of various colors, well 
known to almost every lover of flowers. 
Plants are of spreading habit, about one 
foot high. January till May, 

Petiinia ^OB'a pleiio. Large double 
flowering varieties. They are hybri- 
dized with the finest strains, and will 
give from 20 to 25 per cent of double 
flowers. "Very handsome ; 25 cents per 
package. January till March. 

Piilox I>EruBiii«ioaitlis. Drum- 
mond's Phlox. One of the best and most 
popular annuals in cultivation. Their 
various colors and length of flowering, 
with easy culture, make them favorites 
with every one. All fine colors mixed. 
One foot high. .December till April, 




(Enothei'M Lumarckiana. 




Papaver Ranunculus Flowered. 




Portulaca, 



112 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Phlox Driimmondii Grandiflora. 





Phlox Drummondli Grandiflora Stellata Splendens. 



Scabiosa nana. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES 




flora. This is .in improvement on the 
forepi'oins' kind ; flowers are larger, with 
white ce:ttre, different colors mixed. 
Very beautiful. One foot high. Decem- 
ber till April. 

FBilox I>r«iiiBai«>BD€lii jjraBtdB- 
llorii aSlba. Pure White, some with 
pnrple or violet eye. 

Plilox Di'iiiiiiinoin«lii g^rasBcli- 
flora, stellata splesidens. This is 
admitted to be the richest colored and 
most effective of all large flowered 
Phloxes. It combines all the good 
qualities of the Splendens, with the 
addition of a clearly defined, pure white 
star, which contrasts strikingly with 
the vivid crimson of the flowers. 

Phlox Druinniondii ASl)>a, 11. pi. 
This is really the first double flowering- 
Phlox introduced. Fully two-thirds of 
the plants raised from this seed will give 
pure double white flowers, They can 



Phlox Drummondii, alba fl. pi. 

be used for bouquets, at the same time 
they are ornamental in the garden. 

Price, per packet, 10c. Give it a trial. 

PoB'tuBaca. A small i^lant of great 
beauty, and of the easiest culture. 
Does best in a well exposed situation, 
where it has plenty of sun. The flow- 
ers are of various colors, from white to 
bright scarlet and crimson. The plant 
is good for edging vases or pots; or 



114 



EICHABD FROTSCHEE S ALMANAC AND GAEDEX MANUAL 



where large plants are kept in tubs, the 
surface can be filled with this neat 
little genus of plants. Half foot high. 
Februar}^ till August. 

Portulaca graiidiflora, 1!. pi. 
Double Portulaca. The same variety 
of colors with semi-double and double 
flowers. Half foot high. February till 
August. 

Primula veris* Cowslip. An her- 
baceous plant of various colors, highly 
esteemed in Europe. Half foot high. 
December till April. 

Priimilacliineiisis. Chinese Prim- 
rose. A green-house plant, which flow- 
ers profusely and continues to bloom 
for a long time ; should be sown early 
to insure the plant flowering well. Dif- 
ferent colors ; mixed, per fjackage, 25 
cents. One and a half feet high. Oc- 
tober till February. 

Pyretiirwin aurea. Golden Feath- 
er. The flowers resemble Asters. It 
has bright yellow leaves which make 
it very showy as a border if massed 
with plants, such as Coleus, etc. 

Reseda odorata. Sweet Migno- 
nette. A fragrant plant and a favorite 
with everybody. One foot high. 

Keseda g-raiBctailos'a. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes larg- 
er. Fifteen inches. December till April. 

ScaMosa eiassa. Dwarf Mourning- 
Bride. Plants of double flowers of va- 
rious colors. One foot high. Decem- 
ber till April. 

Saposiaria calatorica. Soapwort. 
A very free flowering annual, of easy 
culture, resembling somewhat in leaves 
the Sweet William. One and a half feet 
high. December till April. 

Salvia cocciaBca splendens. 
Scarlet Salvia or Pied Flowering Sage. 
A- pot or green-house plant, but which 
can be grown as an annual, as it flowers 
freely from seed the first year. Two to 
three feet high. February till April. 

Sileiie Ariiieria. Lobel's Catchfly, 
A free blooming plant of easy culture ; 
flowers almost anywhere. Eed and 
white. One and a half feet high. 

Tagetes erecta. African or Tall- 
growing Marig/ld. Very showy annuals ; 



for borders, with bright yellow flowers 
growing upright, One and a half feet 
high. 

Tag^etes patula. French or Dwarf 
Marigold. A very compact dwarf grow- 
ing variety, covered with yellow and 
brown flowers. One and a half feet 
high. January till April. 

Torenia Foiiraierl. A plant from 
Mexico of recent introduction, but which 
has become, very popular in a short 
time. It stands the heat well, is well 
adapted to pot culture, and makes one 
of the most valuable bedding plants we 
have. The flowers are of a sky blue 
color, with three spots of dark blue. 
The seeds are very fine and take a good 
while to germinate. It transplants very 
easily. 

Verbeeia liybrida. Hybridized Ver- 
bena. A well known and favorite flower 
for borders. Their long flowering and 
great diversity of color make them 
valuable for every garden, however 
small. All colors mixed. One and a 
half feet high. January till April. 

Vertieaia Striped If alias). These 
are beautiful .striped kinds of all colors 
with large eyes. 

Terl>eaia I^iveni. White Verbena. 
Pure white Verbena of more or less fra- 
grance. One and a half feet high. Jan- 
uary till April. 

Vifaca rosea and alba. P.ed and 
White Periwinkle. Plants of shining 
foliage, with white and dark rose colored 
flowers, which are produced the whole 
summer and autumn. Two feet high. 
February till April. 

Vioia odorata. Sweet Violet. Well 
known edging plant, which generally is 
propagated by dividing the plants ; but 
can also be raised from seed. Half foot 
high. Sow from January till March. 

Viola tricolor iiiaxima. Large 
flowering choicest Pansy. This is one 
of the finest little plants in cultivation 
for pots or the open ground. They are 
of endless colors and markings. When 
planted in the garden, they will show 
better if planted in masses, and a little 
elevated above the level of the garden. 
Half foot high. October until March. 



FOE THE SOUTHERN STATES, 



115 




Torenia Fournieri. 



Choicest Large English Pansy. 



116 



KTCHAKD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Zinnia Ele^ans, GrandiHora Robnsta Plenissima. 



Larg:e Trimardeaii Pausy, This 
is the largest variety in ciUtivation ; the 
flowers are well formed, generally three 
spotted : quite distiDct ; the plants grow 
compact. 

Cassiers' iiuproved Pansy. Very 
large blotched and spotted variety in all 
imaginable shades and colors. Flowers 
fully as large as Trimardeau, but more 
brilliant. This is one of the best of all 
Pansy varieties. Price, 25c. per pq-cket. 



i\oii Plus l-ltra. Benary's Elite 
Pansy. This new variety from Germany 
is the finest of all Pansies. Endowed 
with fine well formed flowers in endless 
colors and shades, they form a valuable 
acquisition to our many varieties in cul- 
tivation, and should not be missing in 
any garden. Price, 25c. per packet. 

Zinciia cleg^aiis fl. pi. Double 
Zinnia. Plants of very easy culture, 
flowering very profusely throi^gh the 



t^OR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



117 



whole summer and fall ; producing 
double flowers of all colors, almost as 
large as the flower of a Dahlia. Three 
feet high, February till August. 

Zinnia eleg^ans puinila 11. pi. 
Dwarf Double Mixed. A new dwarf 
section^ especially desirable. The com- 
pact, bushy plants rarely grow over two 
feet high, and are covered with large, 
double Dahlia like flowers of great 
beauty. 

Zinnia cleg^ans, s^randifiora eo° 
busta plenissinia. A new variety 
recently introduced herefrom Germany. 
The plants of this new class of showy 
and attractive annuals are of very robust 
growth and produce veiy large and 
extremely double flowers; measuring 
from 4 to 5 inches in diameter. The seeds 
I offer for sale, come direct from the 
originator, and contain about eisjht 
different beautiful colors, mostly very 
bright. 




Double Portulaca. 




Hybridized Verbena. 



Large Trimardeau Pansy. 



11^ 



RICHARD frotscher's almaKac akd garden manual 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 




Balloon Vine. 




Mornin? Glory. 




^[ixed Thnnberg-ia. 



Aiitigoniiin leptopus. Eosa mon- 
tana. One of the finest perennial 
climbers of rapid growth with long 
racemes of beautiful deep pink flowers. 
Being a native of Mexico, it is well 
adapted to our climate and will stand 
our most severe winters without any 
further protection than perhaps a slight 
cover of moss or straw. Sow in Februarj- 
or March in flower pots, and transplant 
into the open ground in Mav. Will 
flower freely the first year. 

Aristolocliia ele^aii§. A new 
variety of the well known "Dutchman's 
pipe'\ (which however will not grow 
here;) of vigorous growth and quite 
hardy in our climate. It is a profuse 



bloomer, bearing large flowers of a rich 
purple color with irregular branched 
markings Sf. creamy white and golden 
5^ellow centre with rich velvety purple. 
This plant is one of the most thankful 
of all climbers blooming when quite 
young, and continuing to do so the whole 
sum]ner. Will stand our winter without 
protection. Sow in January and Febru- 
ary in flower pots, and transplant in 
open ground when large enough. 

Beiiifiicasa cerifera. Wax Gourd. 
A strong growing vine with long shaped 
dark crimson fruit, which looks very 
ornamental. It is used for preserves. 

CardiosperiuiiBiio Balloon Vine. 
A quick-growing climber, the seeds of 



FOR THB SOUTHERN STATES. 



119 




Hyfiointh Bean. 

which are in a pod, shaped like a minia- 
ture balloon, therefore the name. 

CobaBa Scandeiis. Climbing Co- 
b£ea. Large purple bell-shaped flowers. 
Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not 
kept too moist. Place the seed edgewise 
in the ground. Twenty feet high. Jan- 
uary till April. 

Convolvulus major. Morning 
Glory. Well known vine with various 
handsomely colored flowers, of easy 
culture. Grows almost anywhere. Ten 
feet high. February till July. 

Curcurbita. Ornamental Gourd. 
Mixed varieties or Ornamental Gourds 
of different shapes and sizes. February 
till May. 

Curcurbita L.a^egiaria dulcis. 
Sweet Gourd. A strong growing vine 
of which the young fruits are used like 
Squash. February till April. 

DolicBios Lablab. Hyacinth Beans. 
Free growing plant, with purple and 
white flowers. March till April. 

Ipoonsea C^uanioelit rosea. Bed 
Cypress Vine. Yery beautiful, delicate 
foliage, of rapid growth, with scarlet 
flowers. 

Ipomsea Quannociit alba. White 
Cypress Vine. The same as the red 
variety. 

Iponisea Bona Nox. Large Flow- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 
growth, with beautiful blue and white 
flowers which open in the evening. 
Twenty feet high. February till June, 

This is the Moon flower advertised in 
Northern catalogues as a novelty, not- 




Maurandia Barclayana. 

withstanding the fact that it has been 
known here for the past century. 

L<atliyrus odoratus. Swe^t Peas. 
Beautiful flowers of all colors,, very 
showy. Good for cut flowers. Six feet 
high. December till April. 

Maurandia Barclayana. Mixed 
Maurandia. A slender growing vine of 
rapid growth. Eose purple and white 
colors mixed. Ten feet high. February 
till April. 

Mina liObata. This novelty, which 
is supposed to have first originated in 
Mexico, is one of the most beautiful 




Mina Lobata. 



1^0 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Aris.tolochia Elegans. 



climbing vines for ornamenting the 
garden. It closely resembles in growth 
and its three-lobed foliage the several 
-species of the family of Ipomsea; but 
the flowers are altogether different. 
The flowers appear on fork-like racemes 
bearing themselves upright or almost 
erect out of the dense and luxuriant 
foliage, and with their bright colors 
they present an extraordinary striking 
aspect. The buds are at first bright red, 
but change to orange yellow, and when 
in full bloom, to yellowish white. The 
most singular feature of this plant is, 
that it retains the racemes developed at 
first during the whole flowering season, 
the buds continuing to grow succes- 
sively at the top of the racemes, while 
the lower flowers, after blooming for 
some time, fade, bearing thus con- 
tinually clusters of flowers from the 
bottom up to the highest vine of the 
plant. The oldest racemes attain a 
length of 15 to 18 inches, and at the end 
of the time of blooming they have pro- 
duced from 30 to -40 individual flowers on 
each raceme, of which 6 to 10 had been 
in full bloom at a time. This plant is a 
very rapid growing climber; within 



three months the vine attains a height 
of 18 to 20 feet. It does well on sunny 
situations, and cannot be surpassed for 
covering arbors, trellises, etc., on ac- 
count of its rapid growth and great 
dimensions. I have flowered this beauti- 
ful climber, the last two seasons, and 
can substantiate all what is claimed for 
it. It should be sown early, in order to 
get it to perfection. 

Do not fail to give it a trial. 

Price, per packet, 25c. 

Mamordica Balsainina. Bal- 
sam Apple. A climbing jilant of very 
rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like 
fruits, with warts on them. They are 
believed to contain some medicinal vir- 
tues. They are put in jars with alcohol, 
and are used as a dressing for cuts, 
bruises, etc. 

I^iiffa aciitaiig-u9a. Dish Rag Vine. 
A very rapid growing vine of the Gourd 
family. When the fruit is dry, the fibrous 
substance, which covers the seeds, can 
be used as a rag. February till April. 

SeclBiBEtsfiecliilc. Vegetable Pear or 
Mirliton. A rapid growing vine with 
grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is 
eaten ; there are two varieties, white and 



FOR 'JflE SOOTHER N SPATES. 



liii 



green. It has only one seed, and the 
whole frnit has to be planted. 

Tropaeoltivn majus. Nasturtium. 
Trailing plants with elegant flowers of 
different shades, mostly yellow and 
crimson, which are produced in great 



abundance. Four feet high. February 
till April. 

TliBiiiberg^fla. Mixed Thunbergia. 
Very ornamental vines, with yellow 
bell-shaped flowers, with dark eye. Six 
feet high. February till May. 



BULBOUS ROOTS. 



Anemones. Double flowering. 
Planted and treated the same as the 
Ranunculus. They are of great varie- 
ties in color. 

Double Dutch, 40 cts. per dozen. 

Datilisis. Fine double-named varie- 
ties. Plants so well known for their 
brilliancy, diversity of colors and pro- 
fuse flowering qualities, that they re- 
quire no recommendation. They can be 
planted from February till May; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which ought 
to be driven into the ground before or 
when planting them. To have thera 
flower late in the season they should be 
planted late in the spring, and the 
flower buds nipped off when they ap- 
pear ; treated in this way, they wil 1 pro- 



Undi- 



duce perfect flowers during fall, 
vided roots, $3.00 per dozen. 

The roots I ofl'er are of the very best 
type, having taken special pains to dis- 
card varieties which did not flower well 
here. 

Oladiolus. Hybrid Gladiolus. One 
of the best summer flowering bulbs; 
they have been greatly improved of late 
years, and almost every color has been 
produced; is tinged and blotched in all 
shades from delicate rose to dark Ver- 
million. When planted at intervals 
during spring, they vvill flower at differ- 
ent times, but those that are planted 
earliest produce the finest flowers. 
The roots should be taken up in the 
fall. 





Dahliiis. 



Anemones. 



122 



EICHARD FROTSCHEr'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 




Lilium Lancifolium Rubrum. 



Double Hyacinth. 



bingle Hyacinth. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



123 



Hybrids mixed, 1st choice, (extra) lOc. 
each; 75c. per dozen. 

Hybrids white ground, 1st choice, 10c. 
each ; 75c. per dozen. 

Hybrids mixed, 50c. per dozen. 

Oloxinias. These are really bul- 
bous green house plants, but they can be 
cultivated in pots and kept in a shady 
place in the garden, or window. They 
are very beautiful ; color from white to 
dark viol et and crimson. The leaves are 
velvety, and on some varieties very 
large. They should be planted early in 
spring ; require sandy ground and a good 
deal of moisture during flowering time. 
French Hybrids, strong bulbs, 25c. each ; 
$3.00 per dozen. 

Hyacintlis. (Dutch.) Double and 
single. The Hyacinth is a beautiful 
flowering bulb, well suited for open 
ground or pot culture. They should be 
planted from October till February. If 
planted in pots it is well to keep in a 



cool, rather dark place, till they are well 
started, when they can be placed in the 
full light and sud. Double and single, 
10 cents each ; 75c. per dozen. Named 
varieties $1.00 per dozen. 

WarcissMS. Bulbs of the easiest 
culture, planted from November to Jan- 
uary. 

Double WhUe, sweet scented, 35c. per 
dozen. 

Paper White (Single,) Price, 5c. each; 
50c. per dozen. 

Trumpet Major, (single) very fine, 
50c. per dozen. 

Liliiiiii tig^riiium. Tiger Lily. A 
well known variety, very showy and of 
easy culture ; 10 cents each. 

LiilJiim tig:irinuni fl. pi. This is a 
new variety ; it is perfectly double, and 
the petals are imbricated almost as reg- 
ularly as a camelia flower. Very fine, 
15 cents each. 



JAPAN 

I^iiium aiiratuiiB. Golden Band 
Lily. This is a very handsome lily ; the 
flowers are large and white, each petal 
having a yellow stripe. It is of easy 
culture. A loam^^, dry soil suits it best, 
and planted one inch deep. 

The past season I had occasion to see 
several of this noble lily in bloom, and 
it is really fine ; half a dozen flowers 
opening at the same time and measur- 
ing from six to nine inches across. It 
is very fragrant. I expect some fine 




LILIES. 

bulbs, same as I had last year, imported 
direct from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs, 25c. each. 

LiiJiiin laiicifolium album. 
Pure vv-hite, Japan Lily, 30 cents each. 

JLiiiam laBieifolsiiin rub rum. 
White and red spotted, 15 cents each. 

liilium lancifolium r o § e u m. 
Rose spotted, 15c. each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful 
and fragrant. Should be planted from 
October till January. Perfectly suited 
to this climate. 



Kanunculus. 




124 



RlCflARD iHOTSCHER^S ALMANAC ANl) GAEDEN MaHUaL 



Paeoiiia sinensis. Chinese or her- 
baceous Peeonia. Herbaceous plants of 
different colors and great beauty ; they 
should be planted during fall in a shady 
situation, as they flower early in spring. 
If planted too late the:*' will not flower 
perfectly ; 25c. each. 

RanunculiiSc Double Flowering. 
The roots can be planted during fall 
and winter, either in the open ground 
or in pots. The French varieties are 




Double Tulip. 




more robust than the Persian, and the 
flowers are larger. The ground should 
be rather dry, and if planted in the open 
ground, it will be well to have the spot 
a little higher than the bed or border. 

French Eanuneulus, 25c. per dozen. 

SciBIa peruviana. These are 
green-house bulbs at the North, but 
here they are hardy, and do well in the 
open ground. There are two varieties 
—the blue and white. They grow up 




Single Tulip. 



Tuberoses, double floweriut 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



125 



a shoot, on the end of which the flowers 
appear, forming- a truss. Plant from 
October till January. 25 cents each. 

Tulips. Double and single Tulips 
thrive better in a more Northern lati- 
tude than this, but some years they 
flower well hero, ai^.d as they are cheap, 
a few flowering bulbs will pay the small 
amount they cost. They should not be 
planted later than December, and 
placed very shallow in the ground ; not 



more than one-third of the bulb should 
be covered. When near flowering they 
require a good deal of moisture. Single 
and doable, 50 cents per dozen. 

Tubci'oises. Double .Flowering. 
They are ornamental for the garden, 
and very valuable for making bouquets, 
on account of their pure white color 
and great fragrance. Plant during the 
spring months. Strong bulbs, 10 cents 
each ; 75 cents per dozen. 



THE NEW YORK SEED DRILL 



MATTHEWS' PATENT. 




I take pleasure in calling your attention to a perfect Seed Drill. This Drill 
was invented and perfected by the father of the seed-drill business -Mr. E. G. Mat- 
thews. It has been his aim for years to make a perfect drill and do aivay with the 
objections found in oil others, and in the Now York he has accomplished it. Its 
advantages over other drills are as follows : 



1. Marker-bar under the frame, held 
by clamps, easy to adjust to any width 
by simply loosening thumb nuts. 

2. Adjustable plow, which opens a 
wide furrow, and can be set to sow at 
any depth. 

3. Open seed conductor to show seed 
dropping. 

4. Bm^s in seed conductor, for scatter- 
ing seed in wide furrows, prevents dis- 
turbing strong plants when thinning- 
out— an important feature. 

5. Ridged roller. 

6. Dial plate in full sight of operator, 
and made of patent combination white 
metal which prevents rust. 



7. Dial plate set on fulcrum, and 
hence holds close up. preventing seed 
from spilling. 

8. It has a large seed -box with hinged 
cover. 

9. Machine will stand up alone when 
not in use, not liable to tip over. 

It is the SIMPLEST, MOST COM- 
PACT and EASIEST DRILL TO HAN- 
DLE, being only 82 inches long. 

It covers the seed better and runs 
very easy. 

Packed in crates for shipping. Weighs 
about 45 pounds. 



126 



EICHAED FEOTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 

ouitivation generally, and is an indis- 

I pensible companion to the seed drill. 

i It is thoroughly- constructed through- 

' out. very durable; eas^- to operate. A 

, boy can do a^ much icith it a^ six men 

I icith hoes. It spreads from 6 to 11 inches, 

and will cut all the ground covered, even 

when spread to its greatest extent. Its 

teeth are of a new and improved i)attern 




Price. §6.00, boxed. 

The Matthews' Hand Cultivator is 
one of the best implements in use for 

weeding between row crops, and for fiat 



and thoroughly pulverize and mellow 
the soil. The depth of cultivating may 
be accurately gauged by raising or low- 
ering the wheels, which is quickly done 

bv the use of a thumb sjrew. 



THE CHAUTAUQUA CORN 

PLANTER. 



AND SEED 




Patented April 4, 1SS2. 

rnequalled in SlmrAicity, Jjurability and Emciency. 
The Best is the Cheapest. Perfectly Simple. Simply PeixEect. 



DIRECTIONS. 

To set the seed cup. — Loosen the set- 
screw and draw out the inside or narrow 
gauge far enough to drop the desired 
number of seeds. Then tighten the 
screw. For ordinary planting, only the 
narrow gauge should be moved. " In 
putting in phosphate, or a large quan- 
tity of seed, both the narrow and wide 
ffahsjes should be drawn out together. 
By takino: out the screws, the gauges 
may be drawn entirely out. 

In experienced or careful hands the 
machioe will plant perfectlv in any kind 
or condition of soil, mellow or sodd^-, 
dry or wet. 

To operate the pla/'ter.—l?lace the 
blades in the ground to the desired 
depth, in advance of you. having the 
"step" to the front, as in the cut, with- 
out its touching the ground. Then 
pressing down forward on the handle. 
walk forward. The step will press on 
the ground and then the blades will be 
opened, the seed deposited in the ground 



and a charge taken, for the next hill. 
After walking past the planter, still 
pressing on the handle, lift it from the 
ground to the place for the next hill : as 
this is done the charge of seed will be 
heard rattling down upon the steel 
blades, and the operator will know the 
seed is ready for the next hill. Use 
the planter as you would a cane, or as 
much so as possible. The blades mu^t 
always enter the ground closed, and come 
outopjen. 

It(^ Emciency.— We claim that the 
••Chautauqua' ■ is not equalled as a drop- 
per and ])lanter. By actual trial in the 
field with a number of good planters, 
it has been shown that our machine will 
cover the seed in different soils and at 
different depths, shallow or deep, better 
than any other planter. Oiu^ new im- 
proved seed slide, having double gauges 
for adjusting the seed cup, enables the 
planter to drojj accurately small or large 
seed in the quantitv desired. 

Price, S-2.25. 



FOK THE SOUTHEBN STATES. 



127 



GARDEN IMPLEMENTS, 




Loop Fastener, sv/ing socket Scythe Snath. 




Ladies' Set, Floral Tools. No. 5. 




Weeding Hoe and Kake Combined. 



O. G. Hand Pruning Shear. 



Lang's Weeder. 



Dr.tch, or Scuffle Hoe. 




French Pcrfectiou Shear. 

i ^ 

Sayuor's Pruumg Kuife, No. 192. Saynors Prunlus KuHe, No. 194, 




r;s 



EICHABD FBOTSCHEK'3 ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANL'AL 




Slide Pranisc- Shear. 




Spading Fork, D. Handle. 




5tra\t. jerry or Transplanting Fork. 



Weiss' Hand Prunin? Shear. 



von THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



129 



PRICE-LIST OF GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 




THE ECLIPSE SYRINGE 

PATENT APPLIED FOE. 



DEAKIN'S IMPROVED BRASS GARDEN 

SYRINGES. 

(AMEKICAN.) 
The Eclipse Combined Syringe and 



Force Pump supplies a long i'elt want 
for a perfect, easy working, entirely 
satisfactory Syringe. 

With a 5 inch stroke of the piston a 
continuous stream of water can be 
thrown forty feet with as little exertion 
as is necessary to work the smallest 
syringe. 

No pacldng is necessary, as by its 
peculiar construction there is no possi- 
bility of its leaking. 

Dents in the outer barrel have no effect 
whatever upon its worliing parts. It is 
almost indestructible. 

By means of the 4 ft. hose attachment, 
water and solutions of various kinds can 
be drawn from pail, tank or stream, thus 
ensuring a continuous flow, and making 
it very efficacious in case of fire. 

A-ttach the Elbow Joint and you have 
the most perfect apparatus for cleaning 
ike under surface of the leaves of plants, 
etc. 

N. B. Keep the Piston well oiled. 

Price, Syringe with four ft. of liose, 
complete, $6.00. Fixed Elbow Joint, 75 
cents extra. 

\ft Length of Barral, 12 in 





THE ECLIPSE SYRINGE. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR 
dUm., 1. 



No. A.— Length of barrel, 12 inches: diameter, 1 inch, with one stream and sprav 
rose. Price, S2.25. 



No. 2. 




Ladies' Syringe; length of barrel, 14J> inclies ; diameter l^g inches; v/ith 
one stream and two spray roses. The two roses, when not in use, are 
screwed on the sides of the barrel, as shown in cut. Price, $4,25. 




No. 3,— -X^ength of barrel, 18 inches : diameter, 1| inches. Best Plate Valve Syrinsre 
large size, with one strefiin, two spray roses a«<i side pieces on barrel, 
Price, 16.50. 



EICHAED FROTSCHEB's ALMA>'AC AND GARDZy MA^rAL 




Xo S -LeD-Th of barrel. IS inches ; diameter, 12 inches. Best Conical Yalve S>t:- 
inge, extra large diameter and len.gth of barrel, with cro?s handle and 
one spray rose. Price, $8.C»0. 




Xo. 11.— Second Quality. ; L-nirrh of barrel, IS inches ; diameter, li- inches. Open 
Eose Syringe, full size. Two spray roses and one stream. iSide attach- 
ments. Price. S1.25. 



"5e. 1.'30 and 



I^ewis' Brass Syringe, spray only, l'] by 20 inches 

The D'--akin*s Svrinses are known to be the best raanufactured in 
America, and are far superior to the imported. 

FLORAL TOOLS. 

Thf Bovs Pavcrite— Hoe, Spade and Pake . . . . 

No. 5.— 4 pieces. Hoe. Pake. Spade and Fork (Ladies' Set 

FORKS. 

Geneva Spading. Long Handled. . . . - 

■• •• strapped} 

Spading Short Handled 'Strapped^ 

ZNIanure Enterprise Long Handled, 4 tine (strapped^ 
Geneva " " Itine 

•• •• •' ■•' 5 tine 

HOES. 

i;V. A. Lvndon's Louisiana. No. w— Field. ... 

" ii ■• Xo. 0— ■' 

No. 1— •■ 
Xo. 2- ■• 
No. 3 - •• 

W A. Lvndon's Louisiana, No. 0— Toy 

- ^' No. 1— " 

No. 2— ■' 

Broad. Field No. oou 

" No. !-•<• 

" " " No. 

" No. 1- 

Sandusky Tool Go's Planter's No 2 

" •• ■• No. 6 

No. 3 

No. 4 

Two Pronged German i'orged Steel 



$1 75 



S2 


00 


1 


Oi> 





75 





SO 


1 


25 





70 





70 


90 





50 





85 





90 


1 


00 


1 


10 





75 





75 





80 





40 





45 





50 





55 


so 





4^' 





25 





35 





60 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 131 



Champion with hcindle $0 75 

Enterprise Socket with handle 35 

Two Pronged Weeding-, with handle 40c. and 50 

Four " " " " 50 

Smith's Solid Shank, No. 51, (Pointed) 40 

Harper's Hoe and Rake, Combined 50 

Butch or ScufQe, 5 inches, (English) . . : 50 

7 " " 60 

'* " with handle (American! 60 

Solid Shank Cotton, with handle, No. 00 50 

" Planter's " " No. 000 0-15 

No. 2 60 

Tiffin Patent Adjustable, No. 1 with handle 55 

No. 2 " 65 

No. 4 " , 75 

German Pattern Garden, No. 7/0 " ..... ... 35 

No. 5/0 ^' *. 40 

" No. 3/0 with handle : . 40 

" No. 1/0 " " ...... ..... 45 

" No. 2 " '' . 50 

•'• No. 4 '• " 60 

" " Grub or Sprouting, No. 7/0 with handle 45 

No. 5/0 " " '. ... 50 

'' " Two Prong Grape y/ith handl 75 

KNIVES. 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning ' from 60e to 1 25 

Saynor & Cooke's " from 75c to 150 

Saynor & Cooke's Budding %\ m and 1 40 

Geo. Wostenholme's Pruning I. X. L 75 

Maher & Grosh's Budding, (Cocoa handle) 40 

(Ebony handle) 60 

rivory handle) ... 75 

POTATO HOOKS. 

Long Handled, 4 tine, (Goose Necked) 40 

6 tine 65c and 70 

4 tine (flat! 40c and 50 

4 tine (round) 50 

4 tine, Extra Heavy 50 

^ , PRUNBNC SAWS. 

Diston 's 12 mch IS o. 7 . . . . . . 90 

Compass 12 inch 50 

Crescent 12 " 75 

Duplex 16 " 100 

Avery's Duplex 18 " 1 00 

Brown's 18 inch 75 

RAKES. 

Enterjnise, Cast Steel, 6 teeth 30 

Geneva Tool Co's, Cast Steel, 10 teeth, (Braced) 45 

" 12 " " 50 

" 14 " " 60 

*' " " " 16 " " • 70 



132 



EICHAKD FEOTSCHERS ALMA>*AC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Challenge Eakes, .^Malleable Iron; lu teeth. 

■• 12 

Wooden Head. 1-2 Iron teethj 

TVooden Hay Eakes 

English Wrought-Iron Rakes (lu teeth) without handle 

'12 '' •■ " . .. 

u •• 

(16 •• •• •• . ., 

Lawn Eakes (20 "■ 



SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 'extra heavy . .. 

Ames' ■ ■ • ■ Blight 

Ames' Bright, D. Handle . ...... .. 

Rowlands' Long Handled ^ 

Johnson's ■'' " Bric:ht 

French Steel, Bright, vrithout handles - 

SHOVELS. 

Eowlands, D. Handle, square; .. .. . 

Ames' Bright Long Handled, (round point 

Rowland's Long Handled, (round point) 

Rowland's " " (square; 

SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades with Eine and Wedce 
No. 0. Plate Heel. American 



No. 00. Pal 



Fastener 



English I welded.', No. 2. . 

No. 3 

Scotch riveted back.' No. i' 

No. 1 

English '• No. 2 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

French Sickles. No. 1 

No. -2 



SICKLES. 



SHEARS. 



Hedge Shears. *^ inches 

Ill " ....... 

Pruning Shears No. 1. Wiss. A 

" ' " No. 2. 

Nn. 3. •• 

No. 4. ■- 

Pruning Shears No. 2. Wiss. B 

No. 3, •• 

No. 109. *' Steel Springs^ 9 in. 

No. Ill, '' " '' 11 " . 

•* " >"o. 100, Lee's. Cast Steel, 9". 

n a a .- ' . .. -jQ << 



.Si 10 and 



50 30 
40 
45 
50 
U 50 
25 
50 
60 
70 

80 
2 50 

1 10 

yo 

90 
75 

70 

1 15 



75 
90 
75 
75 



85 
65 
75 

40 
45 
50 
60 
50 
60 
75 
40 

45 

1 75 

2 CO 
1 75 
1 65 
1 50 
1 40 
1 65 

1 50 

2 00 
2 25 
2 oO 
1 25 
1 50 



fofe tHE SotJl^MtlN S^ATfeS. 133 



Pruning Shears, American Sheeptoe 

O. G. No. 2, Saynor, Cooke & Ridal 

No. 655, '' " " 7in.. 

No. G55, " " '• 8 " . . 

" " French Peri'ection No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 .... 

Extra Heavy French, (Pat. Brass Spring) 

Slide Pruning Shear, No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 

No. 4 



SCYTHES. 

French, First Qualiiy fpolished), 22 inches 

24 " 

2() '^ ...- . 
'* Second Quality (blue.) 22 " 



$0 75 


1 50 


1 65 


1 80 


2 75 


2 50 


2 25 


3 00 


2 50 


3 00 


3 50 


4 00 


75 


85 


1 00 


65 


75 


(.1 So 


1 00 


75 


75 


75 



21 ■' 

<« '•'■ <■' 20 " . 

28 "■ .. 

Anaerican Grass ........ . . 

Blood's Champion Grass 

Bramble, 20 to 26 inches 

The French Scythe Blades are imported by me. and are of the best 
quality ; none better can be had. 

WOODASON'S BELLOWS. 

Double Cone (for insect powder) 4 00 

Single " " " 1 00 

Atomizer (for liquid and powder) 2 00 

Pure Pyrethrum Powder for above bellows per box 50 

WATERING POTS, 

6 Quarts, Japanned 40 

8 " " 50 

10 " " 85 

12 " " . 75 

16 "■ " ,. 90 

Ext; a Heavy (hand made) No. 1, 20 Quarts ; 2 00 

No. 2, 16 " 1 75 

No. 3, 14 " 1 50 

" " *' No. 4, 10 " 1 25 

No. 5, 8 " 1 00 

The latter are made of the best material, and have very fine rose heads ; they 
are made by a mechanic who has been furnishing the vegetable gardeners for years 
with these pots, and has improved upon them until they are perfect for the purpose. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Excelsior Weeding Hooks 25 

American Transplanting Trowels 10c to 20 

English " " 5 inch 35 

* " - '* .. 7 .. Q 5Q 

Diston's Transplanting Trowels, (solid shank) 6 inch .- :. 45 

Enterprise " " " 7 " 20 



134 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARIXEN MANUAL 



Transplanting Forks, (Steel) , $0 35 

(Malleable Iron) 20c and 25 

English Bill or Briar Hooks - 1 25 

Lang's Hand Weeder 25 

Toy Spades 40 

Toy Shovels. 50 

Fork Handles 15 

Hoe Handles 10c and 20 

Rake Handles 15 

Spade and Shovel Handles .... 20 

Trowbridge's Grafting Wax per lb. 40c. ; per i lb. 15 

Scotch Whetstones , 20 

American Indian Pond Whetstone 10 

American Berea Whetstone 10 

Darby Creek Whetstone 10 

French Whetstone 15 

Hammer and Anvil for beating French Scythes 1 50 

Raffia, (for tying) per j lb. 10c : per lb., 30 



Having received many enquiries on 
lowing letter, written by E. M. Hudson. 
srive information thereon : 



Mr. R. Frotschek, New Orleans, La. 

Dear Sir :— Your letter of the 3d inst. 
has just reached me, and I cheerfully 
comply with your request to give you 
the results of my experiments with 
Lucerne or Alfalfa, and my opinion of it 
as a forage plant for the South. 

I preface my statement with the ob- 
servation that my experiments have 
been conducted on a naturally poor, 
piney woods soil (which would be class- 
ed as a sandy soil, varying in depth 
from six inches to one foot. But I have 
good red clay sub-soil, which enables 
the soil to retain the fertilizers applied 
to it, thus rendering it susceptible of 
permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention 
was first directed to Alfalfa, I sought 
the advice of the editor of the Journal 
of Progress, Professor Stelle, who in- 
formed me that, after attempting for 
several years to cultivate it, he had de- 
sisted. He stated that the plant, at 
Citronelle, in this county, died out every 
summer, not being able to withstand the 
hot suns of our climate. Discouraged 
but not dismayed, I determined to test 



the culture of Alfalfa, I reprint the fol- 
, Esq., a close observer on the subject, to 

Villa Friedheim, 

Mobile County, Ala., September 7th, 1878. 

the matter on a small scale at first. 
Having procured, some seeds in March, 
1876, I planted them on a border in my 
garden, and gave neither manure nor 
work that season. The early summer 
here that year was very dry ; there was 
no rain whatever from the first of June 
to the 23d of July, and from the 2d of 
August to the 15th of November not a 
drop of rain fell on my place. Yet, 
during all this time, my Alfalfa re- 
mained fresh, bloomed, and was cut two 
or three times. On the Ist of Novem- 
ber I dug some of it to examine the 
habit of root-growth, and to my aston- 
ishment found it necessary to go 22 
inches below the surface to reach any- 
thing like the end of the top roots. At 
once it vv'as apparent that the plant was, 
by its very habit of growth, adapted to 
hot and dry climates. It is indeed a 
"child of the sun.'' 

Encouraged by this experiment, in 
which I purposely refrained from giving 
the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it 
occasionally, last year I proceeded on 
a larger scale, planting both spring and 



FOB THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



135 



fall, as I have done again this year, to 
ascertain the best season for putting in 
the seed. My experience teaches that 
there is no preference to be given to 
spring sowings over those of autumn, 
provided only, there be enough moist- 
ure in the soil to make the seed germ- 
inate, which they do more quickly and 
more surely than the best turnips. Two 
winters have proved to me that the 
Alfalfa remains green througiiout the 
winter in this latitude, 25 miles North 
of Mobile, and at an altitude of 400 feet 
above tide-water. Therefore I should 
prefer fall sowing which will give the 
first cutting from the first of March to 
the 1st of April following. This season 
my first cutting was made on the 1st of 
April ; and I have cut it since regularly 
every four or six v^eeks, according to the 
weather, to cure for hay. Meanwhile 
a portion has been cut almost daily for 
feeding green, or soiling. Used in the 
latter way (for under no circurm^ta rices 
must it ever be pastured), I am able to 
give my stock fresh, green food, fully 
four weeks before the native wild grasses 
commence to put out. I deem it best 
to cut the day before, what is fed green, 
in order to let it become thoroughly 
wilted before using. After a large 
number of experiments with horses, 
mules, cattle and swine, I can aver that 
in no instance, from March to Novem- 
ber, have I found a case when any of 
these animals would not give the 
preference to Alfalfa over every kind 
of grass (also soiled) known in this 
region. And, while Alfalfa makes a 
sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten 
by all kinds of stock, it is as a forage 
plant for soiling, which is available for 
at least nine months in the year, that I 
esteem it so highly. The hay is easily 
cured, if that which is cut in the fore- 
noon is thrown into small cocks at 
noon, then si)read out after the dew is 
off next morning, sunned for an hour, 
and at once hauled into the barn. By 
this method the leaves do not fall off, 
which is sure to be the case, if the Al- 
falfa is exposed to a day or tv/o of hot 
sunshine. 



It has been my habit to precede the 
Alfalfa with a clean crop--usually Kuta- 
bagas, after which I sow clay peas, to 
be turned in about the last of July. 
About the middle of September or later 
I have the land plowed, the turn-plow 
being followed by a deep sub-soil-plow 
or scooter. After this the land is fer- 
tilized and harrowed until it is thor- 
oughly pulverized and all lumps broken 
up. The fertilizers employed by me are 
500 lbs. fine bone-dust (phosphate of 
lime) and 1000 lbs. cotton seed hull 
ashes per acre. These ashes are very 
rich in potash and phosphates, con- 
taining nearly 45 per cent of the phos- 
phate of lime— the two articles best 
adapted to the wants of this plant. I 
sow all my Alfalfa with the Matthews' 
Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. 
Broad-cast would be preferable, if the 
land was perfectly free from grass and 
weeds: but it takes several years of 
clean culture to put the land in this 
condition, sowing in drill is practically 
the best. No seed sower known to me 
can be compared v^ith the Matthews' 
Seed Drill. Its work is evenly and 
regularly done, and with a rapidity that 
is astonishing; for it opens the drill to 
any desired depth, drops the seed, covers 
and rolls them, and marks the line for 
the next drill at one operation. It is 
simple and durable in its structure, and 
is the greatest labor-saving machine of 
its kind ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about three in- 
ches high, I work it with the Matthews' 
Hand Cultivator. First, the front tooth 
of the cultivator is taken out, by which 
means the row is straddled and all the 
grass cut out close to the plant : then the 
front tooth being replaced, the cultiva- 
tor is passed between the rows, com- 
pletely cleaning the middles of all foul 
growth. As often as required to keep 
down grass, until the Alfalfa is large 
enough to cut, the Matthews' Hand 
Cultivator is passed between the rows. 

Alfalfa requires three years to reach 
perfection, but even the first year the 
yield is hirger than most forage plants, 
and after the second it is enormous. 



136 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMA^^AC AND GAujDEN MaXUAL 



The land must, however, be made rich 
at first ; a top-dressing every three years 
is all that will thereafter be required. 
The seed must be very lightly covered, 
and should be rolled, or brushed in, if 
not sowed with a Matthews' Seed Sower. 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it 
must be cut ; for, if the seed be left to 
mature, the stems become hard and 
woody. Also whenever it turns yellow, 
no matter at what age, it must be cut 
or mowed; for the yellow color shows 
the presence of some disease, or the work 
of some small insect, both of which 
seems to be remedied by mowing 
promptly. My experience leads me to 
the conclusion that fully five tons of 
Cured hay per acre may be counted on 
if proper attention be given to deep 
plowing, subsoiling, fertilizing and 
cleanliness of the soil. These things 
are indispensable, and without them no 
one need attempt to cultivate Alfalfa. 

In conclusion, I will remark that I 
have tried the Lucerne seed imported 
by you from Fra-nce, side by side with 
the Alfalfa seed sent me by Trumbull 



& Co., of San Francisco, and I cannot 
see the slightest difference in appear- 
ance, character, quantity or quality of 
yield, or hardiness. They are identical ; 
both have germinated equally well, that 
Is to say, perfectly. 

In closing, I cannot do better than re- 
fer you to the little treatise of Mr. C. W. 
Howard, entitled: "A Manual of the 
Grasses and Forage Plants at the 
South." Mr. Howard, among the very 
first to cultivate Lucerne in the South, 
gives it the preference over all other 
forage plants whatever. My experience 
confirms all that Mr. Howard claims for 
it. Certainly, a plant that lasts a 
generation is worthy of the bestowal 
of some time, patience and money to 
realize what a treasure they can secure 
for themselves. I confidently believe 
that in years from this date the Alfalfa 
will be generally cultivated throughout 
the entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 
E. M. HUDSON, 
Counsellor at Laiv, 
20 Carondelet St.. New Orleans. 



JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

This tuber is well known, and has been described by me in my former Almanacs. 
It is used for the table, also for stock feed. It does best in a rich loam : should be 
planted and cultivated like potatoes. They yield very heavy. 

Price, per bushel, 12.50— per gall., 35 cents. 



-^ — -^^-5-aB» 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST 

or 

SOME VARIETIES OF THE SORGHUM FAMILY. 



As a forage plant for early cutting, to 
be fed to stock, I do not think that any- 
thing is equal to the Amber Sorghum, 
such as I have been selling for years, 
imported from Kansas. After several 
cuttings, the branching varieties of 
Sorghum, also called Millo Maize, may 
be preferable, but more so for seed 



than forage.— The Teosinte will give 
more fodder than any of the Sorghums. 
Some varieties not before described and 
rather new here are the following ; 
Yellow Millow Maize, orYellow Branch- 
ing Dhouro, grows same as the White 
Brandling kind. The only difference 
exists in the size of the seed, which is 



fOll Ttifi SOUI^ETERN gT'A^tS. 



i;3T 



twice the size of tiie white variety.— It 
is said to be somewhat earlier, seeds 
planted in April will ripen seed in 
July.— Oh account of its branching habit 
this grain should be planted in four 
or five foot rows, and two to three feet 



in the drill, according to the strength 
of the land, two plants in a hill. The 
cultivation is like corn. 

Price, 10c. per lb; postage extra, 8c. 
per lb. by raail-15 lbs. $1.00 by Express 
or Steamer. 



KAFFIR CORN 



This grain was distributed in small 
quantities from the Georgia State De- 
partment of Agriculture in 1878, and in 
the hands of Dr. J. H. Watkins, of Pal- 
metto, Campbell County, Ga., it has 
been preserved and fully, developed, 
and was first brought to public notice 
through him in 1885. The seed offered 
for sale is from his own growing, the 
genuine and pure stock ; crop of 1889. 

It is a variety of Sorghum, non Sac- 
charine, and distinctly differing in habit 
of growth and other characteristics from 
all others of that class. The plant is 
low, stocks perfectly erect, the foliage 
is wide, alternating closely on either 
side of the stalks. 

It does not stool from the root, but 
branches from ^he top joints, producing 
from two to four heads of grain from 
each stalk. The heads are long, narrow 
and perfectly erect, well filled v/ith white 
grain, which at maturity is slightly 
flecked with red or reddish brown spots. 
Weight, GO lbs. per bushel. 

The average height of growth on good 
strong land, 5^ to 6 feet: on thin land, 
4i to 5 feet. The stalk is stout, never 
blown about by winds, never tangles, 
and is always manp^geable, easily han- 
dled. A boy can gather the grain heads 
or the fodder. The seed heads grow 
from 10 to 12 inches in length, and pro- 
duct of grain on good land easily reaches 
50 to 60 bushels per acre. 

It has the r^uality common to manv 



Sorghums of resisting drought. If the 
growth is checked by want of moisture, 
the plant waits for rain, and then at 
once resumes its processes, and in the 
most disastrous seasons has not failed 
so far to make its crop. On very thin 
and worn lands, it yields paying crops 
of grain and forage, even in dry seasons 
in which corn has utterly failed, on the 
same lands- 

The whole stalk, as well as the blades, 
cures into excellent fodder, and in all 
stages of its growth is available for green 
feed, cattle, mules and horses being 
equally fond of it, and its quality not 
surpassed by any other known variety. 
If cut down to the ground, two or more 
shoots spring from the root, and the 
growth is thus maintained until cheeked 
by frost. 

The Kaffir Corn may be planted in the 
latter part of March, or early in April. 
It bears earlier planting than other 
Millets or Sorghums. It should be put 
in rows not over three feet apart, even 
on best land, and it bears thicker plant- 
ing than any other variety of Sorghum ; 
should be massed in the drill on good 
land, for either grain or forage purposes, 
and also on thin land, if forage mainly 
is desired. No plant can equal it for 
quality and quantity of grain and forage 
on thin lands. Use 3 to 5 lbs. of seed 
per acre. Price of seed, 10c. per lb., 
postage extra, 8c. per lb. by mail ; lots 
of 15 ibs. for $1.00. 



TEOSINTE. 

(Reana luxurians.) 



This is a forage plant from Central 
America, It resembles Indian Corn in 
aspect and vegetation, but produces a 
great number of shoots 3 to 4 yards high ; 
it is perennial, but only in such situa- 
tions where the thermometer does not 



fall below freezing point. Cultivated 
as an annual, it will yield a most abun- 
dant crop of excellent green fodder. 

Considering the Teosinte a superior 
forage plant, the following extract of a 
letter from Mr. Chas. Debremond of 



138 



RICHARD FEOTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MA^•UiL 



Thiboueaux, La.^ will give additional 
light on the cultivation of same.- -In 
describing his experience with Teosiote, 
he advises planting the seed in Febru- 
ary, so as to have the plants up early 
in March, as it takes some 14 or 20 days 
for the seed to germinate. He prefers 
planting in rows, as giving a heavier 
crop than when in hills; and as its 
growth during the 'first month is very 
slow, he gives it a good hoeing for its 
first cultivation, using only the plough 
thereafter. 



He also advises cutting the stalks for 
green food when about 4 feet high, and 
specially recommends cutting them 
close to the ground, as tending to make 
a much heavier second growth than 
vv^hen cut higher. His horses, mules 
and caitle eat the stalks with great 
avidity, leaving no part unconsumed, 
and prefer it much to green Indian Corn 
or Sorghum. 

Price, SI. 00 per lb. ; 30c. per + lb.. 15c 
per oz. Postage prepaid. 



List of a Few Varieties of Acclimated Fruit Fiee^ 

SUITABLE FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



HOW TO PLANT T^EES 



Although there arc numerous books 
and papers published on arboriculture, 
giving necessary informations how to 
plant trees, and yet I am so often asked 
by some of my customers how to plant 
and prepare the soil for fruit trees, I 
deem it necessary to .-jive here some 
short instructions. 

Make the ground thoroushly mellow at 
least 15 inches deep, and ;^ or 4 feet wide 
each v>'ay, if holes are to be dug ; thor- 
ough plowing of entire plat is preferable 
if it can be done. Prune the tree close ; 
straighten out roots evenly, having the 
tree standing the same depth it was in 



Xursery : work fine, mellow soil (but no 
manure) among the roots, and when 
they are all covered an inch or two, press 
the soil very firmJy down with the foot 
or a broad ended maul, after which fill 
up evenly with loose soil, over which 
place a mulch of rotten straw, or man- 
ure, 3 or 4 inches deep, extending 3 feet 
every way from the tree. "Whether the 
mulch is put on or not, keep the soil well 
cultivated about the tree. In this climate 
all trees should be headed low and 
leaned a little to the norrjiwest when 
planted. 



DISTANCES APART TO PLANT TREES, Vlf^ES, ETC: 



Peaches. Plums. Standard Pears, 



Grapes, such as i3elaware, Ives Seed- 



Apricots, in light soil. 16 to 18 feet; in | ling, which are of slow growth, 6 to 8 



strong soil, 18 to 20 feet each way. 

Figs should be planted 20 to 2i feet 
apart. 

Dwarf Pears, Quinces, etc.. 10 tn 15 feet 
apart. 
Japanese Persimmons, l.'i to 12 feet. 



feet apart each way. Thrifty growers, 
like Concord, Triumj^h. Goethe, etc., 8 
to 10 feet apart, 

Herbemont, Cynthiana, etc., which 
are the most rapid growers. 12 feet apart 
in rows S feet wide. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING LE CONTE PEAR TREES 



Plant the tree ui:' to the collar in a larse 
hole, fillins it with a rich loam in v.-hich 
some fertilizer ha.s been mixed; press 
the earth in firmly around the roots, 
usins: water in dry 'weather; trim back 
one-half of each year's growth till the 
fourth year, then trim only in-growing 



and chafing liml<s with a view to spread- 
ing the head. Plant thirty feet each way. 
Clean culture and broad-cast manuring 
are best. For best result? plant large 
one yea?' trees, and only those growyz 
from cuitiriqs. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



139 



LE CONTE PEAR 



This new Southern pear is as vigor- 
ous in growth as the China Sand, and is 
an enormous bearer. The fruit is iarge, 
pale yellow, juicy melting', and of good 
quality, doing better in the South than 
elsewhere. It 'bears transportation well, 
and commands the highest prices at the 
North. Time of ripening begins about 



the middle of July. Bo far, this pear 
has never been known to blight. It 
promises to be the pear for the South. 

Eooted one year old trees, 4 to 6 feet, 
20c. each; $2.00 per dozen, 2 year old 
trees, 6 to 8 feet, '.^5c. each; $2.50 per 
dozen. 




Le Conte Pear. 



i40 



llieHARi) FEOTSCHEk's AL!VIaN:AC AisD 



GASiDTlX ^lAlNLAL 



KIEFFER'S HYBRID PEAR 



A variety from Philadelphia; a hyb- 
rid between the China Sand and Bart- 
lett, both of which it resembles in wood 
and foliage. It has the vigor and pro- 
ductiveness of its Chinese parents. 
Fruit large and handsome ; bright yel- 
low and red cheek; flesh tender, juicy 



and well flavored. It comes into bear- 
ing at an early age. Eipens end of 
September, or beginning of October. -> 
It is an excellent sort for preserving. 

Two year old trees, well branched, 30c. 
each ; $3.00 per doz. ; one year, 20c, each ; 
$2.00 per dozen. 




Kieffer Ptar 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



141 



BARTLETT PEAR 



This well-known variety, one of the 
finest i)ears in cultivation, has been 
successfully cultivated here; but occa- 
sionally it has blighted. Since the 
introduction of the LeConte, trials have 
been made with success, that is by 
grafting this, and other line varieties, 
upon the LeCoute ;— by so doing, the 



trees are imparted with the vigor of the 
latter, growing stronger, and making 
finer and healthier trees. I offer trees 
grafted on the LeConte Stock, for sale. 

One year old trees, 3—4 feet, 25 cts. 
each ; $2.50 per dozen. 

Two years old, well branched, 5—6 
feet high, 35c. each ; $3.50 per dozen. 




Bartlott Pear. 



DUCHESS D'ANGOULEME PEAR. 

Another popular variety which does well in this section.— On LeConte Stock. 
Two yearn old, well branched, 3'Jc. each ; $3.00 per dozen. 



142 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



HOWELL PEAR. 

One of the best for here. Tree is an upright free grower; it is an early and 
profuse bearer. 

Two years old, on LeConte Stock, oOc. each ; $3.00 per dozen. 

CLAPP'S FAVORITE PEAR. 

A large new pear, resembling the Bartlett ; but does not possess its musky 
flavor. Fine texture; juicy, with a rich, delicate, vinous flavor. It is very pro- 
ductive. On LeConte Stock. 

Two years old, 30c. each ; $3.00 per dozen. 

JEFFERSON PEAR. 

Another blight proof pear, very distinct in habit and growth from other varie- 
ties under cultivation. Cannot be stated yet under what particular type or species 
it should be classed. 

It ripens in Central Mississippi from the 1st— 10th of June, is in the market 
with the earliest peaches, and brings the highest prices, It is above medium size, 
color bright yellow, with a bright, deep crimson cheek. It is ripe and marketed 
before Leconte is ready to ship. It is poor in flavor. 

Price, tv^o year old trees, 5 — 6 feet, 30c. each ; $3.00 per dozen. 



WILD GOOSE PLUM. 

A native variety from Tennessee, where it is highly esteemed for market. 
a strong grower ; the fruit is large and of good quality. 
Price, 25c. each ; S2.50 per dozen. 



It is 




Vvilcl Goose Plum. 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



143 



MARIANNA PLUM. 



A new plum from Texas, supposed | 
accidental seedling of the Wild Goose. | 
It is a rapid grower. Grows from cut- 
tings ; it never throws up any suckers or 
sprouts. Fruit as large, good and hand- 
some as the Wild Goose ; one to two 
weeks earlier, hangs on better, ships 
well ; ripens and colors beautifully, if 



picked a few days previously. It is 
the best of the Chickasaw type. This 
variety and the Yv'ild Goose, should be 
fertilized by the common Chickasaw 
kind to have it bear well. 

Price, 5-6 feet high, 25c. each; $2.50 
per dozen. 




Marianna Plum. 



IM 



KICHArvD FKOTSCHEE S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



KELSEY'S JAPAN PLUM. 

The Primus Domestica, or European varieties, have proven worthless in the 



South generally. The 
being of Asiatic origin. 
The Kelsey Plum is 
from two to two and 
a half inches in diam- 
eter, heart-shai:>ed, rich 
yellow, v/ith purple 
cheek. Parties who 
have been fruiting it 
here in the South, pro- 
nounce it the most mag- 
nificent plum they have 
seen ; it weighs from 1 
to 6 ounces. It excels 
all other plums for can- 
ning and drying, and 
will carry for a long dis- 
tance better than any 
other kind. Matures 
middle of August to 
September. It has 
fruited in this neighbor- 
hood this past season ; 
it is a most delicious 
fruit, and everyone who 
plants fruit trees should 
not fail to plant some. 
I consider it a great ac- 
quisition. Price. •25c. each 



above will take their place promising good results, 




Kelsey' £ Japan Plum. 



X l>cr dozen. 



SATSUMA OR BLOOD PLUM 



This is another variety from Japan ; 
has been fruited in California last year. 
The following is the description given 
by the introducer, Mr. Luther Burbaiik : 
"It is nearly six weeks earlier than the 
Kelsey, firm flesli ; much larger, of finer 
quality, color and form. It is an early 



with more vigor than any of the other 
varieties of Japan Plums I have fruited 
here. The seed is also the smallest yet 
seen." 

The flesh is dark red, solid color from 
skin to pit, firm, rather juicy, and "f 
'ood flavor 



and enormous bearer, and the trees grow ' Price, 75g. each ; $6.U0 per dozen 



OGAN AND BOTAN PLUMS. 



Two other Japan varieties. They are 
vigorous, handsome growers; branches 
smooth with rich light green foliage. 

The Og^aii is a large yellow variety, 
ripens early, and is very gweet. The 



Botaaa is very lar^^e, reddish bhic ; a 
good keeping an d shJi)ping fruit. Japan 
fruit does well here generally; every- 
body should try a few of these plums, 
Price, 30c. each ; $3.00 per do^eu. 



FOR THE aOtJTHERN STATES. 



145 



APRICOT PLUM 

(PRUNUS SIMONI.) 



A nev/ plum from North China. It 
was fruited for the lirst time in 1885, by 
T. W. Munson, of Denison, Texas— the 
well-known nurseryman. The fruits, 
when ripening, shine like apples of 
gold, and become of a rich vermillion 
when ripe. It is very firm and mealy, 



and equal to any ])lam ; has never been 
attacked by the Curculio. It will carry 
any desired distance. 

Tree very thrifty, upright ; early and 
abundant bearer. 

Price, one year old trees, 30c. each; 
$3.00 per dozen. 



PEACH TREES 



I have a line assortment of Southern grown Trees, selected from the well- 
known Nurseries of Gaines, Coles & Co. They consist of the following varieties, viz : 



FREE STONES. 

Jessie KerB\ 

Amsden. 

Alexander, 

£arly L<ouise. 

Fleitas St. Jolin. 

Mountaiai Rose. 

Hoitey. 

Foster. 

Crau^fortl's EarUy. 

Amelia. 

As they follow in the list they ripen in succession. 
Price, 25c. each ; S2.50 per dozen. 



FREE STONES. 

Stuanp the \l^orId. 

Ttiurber. 

Old Mixon. 

Cra\¥ford's L<ate. 

iSiiiock. 

Picqiiet'sJL-ate. 

I^ady Parhain. 



CLING STONES. 

€reiieral L.ee. 

IStonewall Jackson. 

Old IVIixon. 

Lemon. 

Heath. 

Wix WBiite Late. 

§tinson's October. 

Butler, 

Chinese. 



PEEN-TO OR FLAT PEACH OF CHINA. 



This remarkable Peach is very popular 
in Florida, where it thrives admirably 
and produces magnificent crops of fruit. 
Fruit 2| inches in diameter, very flat, 
skin pale gl?eenish white, with red cheek ; 
pealing readily at maturity; fiesh fine 
grained, juicy and smelting with almond 



aroma, quality best. It colors some time 
before being ripe, and should remain on 
the tree until fully matured, and may 
then be shipped to distant markets with 
perfect safety. Eipens in Florida about 
the 1st to 15th of May. 
Price, 25c. each ; $2.50 per dozen. 



GRAPE VINES. 

Have some selected varieties for the table, and for making wine. The follow- 
ing is a list of them, viz. : 

Champion. Large black, poor 
quality but sells readily, being the ear- 
liest in the market. 

2 years old, 10c. each ; $1.00 per dozen. 

Moore's £arly. Large size and 
very early, good for table use. Price, 
20c. each. 

Dela-ware. Well known. Regarded 
as best American Grape ; it does well iiq 



the South, with good soil and high cul- 
ture. Price, 20c. each ; $2.00 per dozen. 

Ooetlie. Light pink ; very fine for 
table use. It is the best of the Roger's 
hybrids. Price, 20c. each; $2.00 per 
dozen. 

Triumph. This is a late variety; 
bunches very large, golden when fully 
.ripe, fine as best foreign, and sells 



10 



146 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANJVC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



equally well ; melting pulp, small seeds, 
vig-orous as Concord, of which it is a 
hybrid seedling. Earely it rots ; stands 
pre-eminently at the head as a late 
table grape. Price, 20c. each. 

NortOBs's Vir^finsa. An unfailing, 
never rotti!],u-. red wine grape of fine 
quality. Price, 20c. each ; S2.00 per 
dozen. 

CyMthiaiia, Yery much like the 
latter ; same price. 

Con43ord. Early: very i')opular; 



good for market. Some years it rots. 
10c. each ; Si. 00 per dozen. 

Ives. Eipens with the Concord. 
Good for wine ; vigorous and productive. 
10c. each ; SI. 00 per dozen. 

Herbeeiiont (ITIcKee). A most pop- 
ular and successful red or purple grape 
in the south ; excellent for table or wine. 
McKee is identical with it. 

Price, 20c. each ; 82.00 per dozen. 

Prices for other Nursery Stock will be 
given on application. 



JAPAN PERSIMMON. 

This new valuable fruit has been fruited for the last few years. Most varieties 
are of excellent quality; twice and three times as large as the native kind; very 
attractive when the fruit is ripe. I had some which weighed a pound, very sweet 
and of a most delicious flavor. As tiiey are of easy culture and do well here, it is a 
profitable fruit to grow. 

Assorted named varieties. Price, 50c. each; 95.00 per dozen, large size. 




Japan Persimmon. fHachiya.) 



FOIl THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



147 



CELESTE OR CELESTIAL FIG 



I have only a limited supply of one 
year old trees of this variety. They 
have been raised from cuttinj^s in a 
sandy loam ; are well rooted, and raised 
to a single stem ; not in sprouts, as is 
often the case, when raised from suckers 
taken oft* from old trees. 

The cultivation of this fruit has rather 
been neglected, which should not be so, 
as the fig is always a sure croi), with 
very little attention. It has commenced 



to be an article of commerce, when 
preserved; shipped from here it sells 
(piite readily North, put u}) in that way. 
The Celeste is the best for that i)urpose, 
not liable to sour like the yellow skinned 
varieties, and sweeter than other dark 
skinned kinds. 

Price, 25c. each; $2.5Uperdoz. ; packed 
and delivered ou steamboat, or R. E. 
depot. 



NEW WHITE ADRIATIC FIG 



This valuable variety has been intro- 
duced into this country from South Italy ; 
where it is esteemed as the finest of all 
Figs. The Tree attains an enormous 
size and is an immense bearer, bearing 
more than any other variety known. 

The fruit is of the finest quality ; the 
skin is thin like paper, thiunest at the 
base and not like most other Figs thicker 
at t]ie point. The pulp Is very sweet, 
with small seeds, without a hollow space 
in the centre ; in fact, the whole fruit is 
one solid pulp. 



The size of the fruit is larger than the 
v/hite Smyrna Fig and a great deal liner 
in flavor. It begins to ripen in July, and 
Figs ripen from that time continually 
until frost. ,The principal crop is in 
August. 

This variety is extensively grown in 
Italy for drying, and the finest dried 
Figs of commerce are obtained from it. 
Since our cliiuate is well adapted to its 
culture it will in time prove the most 
valuable of all Figs. 

Price, 50c. each ; $5.00 per dozen. 



NEW POMEGRANATE "SPANISH RUBY." 



This new variety of the ^ell-known 
Pomegranate is one of the most beauti- 
ful and finest of all fruits of our temper- 
ate climate. Fruit very large, as large 
as the largest Apple; eye very small, 
skin tliick and smooth, paie yellow with 
crimson cheek ; meat of the most beautir 
ful crimson color, highly aromatic and 



very sweet. The Spanish Ruby is a fine 
grower and. good bearer, and the fruit is 
excellent for shipping, as it will kee[> for 
a long timp. 

it ripens shortly before Christmas and 
could be shipped to Northern cities, 
where during the holidays it would at- 
tract great attention. — Price, 75c. each. 



SUCKER STATE STRAWBERRY 



We have various sorts of soil in Louis- 
iana, and the Strawberry suitable to and 
succeeding equally well in poor or rich 
land, can only be determined by prac- 
tical experiment. 

There are but few varieties which 
adapt themselves to all soils and lati- 
tudes, hence the importance of planting 
those which experienced fruit growers 
have tested and found profitable. A 
8tT9;W^erry liavjngall t^ha good qu^,lities, 



has not, and perhaps never will be 
discovered ; still in choosing, it is well 
to purchase plants having as many good 
points as possible. This I claim for the 
Sucker State. 

It is bisexual; having both, stamens 
and pistils perfect. The foliage is very 
heavy, protecting the fruit from beating 
rains and hot sun. It is very prolific, 
large si?;e, good quality, and cone 
shaped, Color bright red, very attract 



148 



RICHARD FROTSCHER'S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



tive, and in addition will ship well. I offer this variety at the following 
prices, viz. : 60c. per 100 ; $5.00 per 1000. 

Have other varieties, Wilson's Albany, etc., at same price. 




Sucker State Strav/berry. 



LOUISIANA SOFT SHELL PECANS 



This is a variety of nuts which only 
grows South, and is a sure crop here. 
Those who planted Orange trees twenty 
years ago, lost most of their labor in 
January, 1886, when seven -eighths of 
trees were killed by the severity of the 
weather. If Pecan trees had been 
planted instead, they would have 
brought a handsome income, and con- 
tinued to increase every year in their 
production, furnishing a aeyer failing 



crop for a whole century. The crop of 
pecans from which I have been getting 
my seed has failed, owing to the storm 
of August, 1888, which broke off the 
branches and mutilated the trees in such 
manner, that they only grew new wood 
this year, of which I expect a good crop 
in 1890. Have some large pecans on 
hand, soft shell ; but not so large as in 
former years. 
Price, 50c. per pound. 



FOR THE SOtJTHEIlN Sl'ATES, 



149 



NOVELTIES AND SPECIALTIES FOR 1890. 



Horsford's Pre- 
lude Tomato. The 

originator of this va- 
riety claims to have in 
this one of the earliest 
tomatoes. The skin is 
firm and perfectly free 
from rot. It is of excel- 
lent flavor and special- 
ly adapted for forcing 
as well as open air cul- 
ture. Give it a trial. 
Price, per packet, 10c. ; 
per oz., 50c. ; per 4 lb., 

5^1.50. 

Dwarf Champion 
Tomato. A new dis- 
tinct variety; the 
plants grow stiff and 
upright, and need no 
support as other kinds. 
Can be planted closely 
together, three feet 
apart. It is very ea rly 
and productive; the 
fruit resembles the 
Acme, but is of lighter 
coloi, ripens up even 
and does not crack. 
Where room is an ob- 
ject this variety is re- 
commended. 

Price, per packet, 
10c. ; per oz., 50c. ; per 
I lb., SI. 50. 

Trocadero Let- 
tuce. This is a new 
Cabbage Lettuce from 
France ; it is of light green color, form- 
ing a large solid head, resembling the 
New Orleans Improved Passion Lettuce 
somewhat in appearance. It is good for 
forcing and outdoor culture. 

Price, per packet, 10c; per oz., 30c , 
per lb., $2.50. 

Early Ooldeti Cluster VFax Pole 
Beans. This is the earliest Wax Pole 
Bean in cultivation; pods from 6 to 8 




Trocadero Lettuce, 



150 



ElCHARB FROTSCHEr's ILMANAC A^'D G-AEDEX MA^*rAL 



inches long, produced in clust- 
ers. The pods are golden yellow ; 
flavor delicious. 

Price, per packet, 10 cts. ; per 
pint, 30c; per qt., 50c; per gall., 
81.50; per peck, S2.50. 

Henderson's Newr Busli 
JLiina Beans. This is a dwarf 
Butter Bean which requires no 
poles ; it grows from 18 to 24 
inches high. It is early and pro- 
ductive. It should be called 
Dwarf Carolina or Sewee Bean, 
as the pods are of the size of 
that variety. Eecommend same 
for family use, where it is diffi- 
cult to obtain poles. 

Price, per packet, 25c ; five for 
$1.00; per pint, 75c ; perqt.,;Sl.25. 




Dwarf Champion Tomato. 




Early Golilou riuster Wax Pole Beans 



Henderson's New Bush Lima Beans 



fOR THE SOttHERN STATES. 



151 



Rural Mew YoBlier ]¥o. 2 Potato. 

This potato is the nearest to ijerfection 
of any kind yet introduced, and exceeds 
all others in yield. It has many distinc- 
tive features, and could be readily recog- 
nized among a hundred others. Among 
the features ])eculiarly its own are : 



Z^iry^. -Distinct appearance. 

Second. — J^avge size and unusual 
smoothness of skin. 

T/tlrc?.— Eyes few, distinct and shal- 
low. 

Fom'th.— Its form is that which is most 
ai)proved by all potato lovers. 




Rural New Yorker No. 2 Potato. 







15^ 



MCSarD FROTSCHER's ALMaKAC and garden MANtJAL 



i^i/i/i.— Extreme whiteness, both of 
!3kin and flesh, and unexcelled table 
quality. 

Sixth.— Great vigor in growth and soli- 
dity of tuber, enabling it to resist disease 
to a remarkable degree. Do not fail to 
try it. 

Price, per h peck, 60c. ; per peck, $1.00 ; 
per bushel, S3. 00. 

The Tliortourn Potato. The origi- 
nators of this potato claim to have in 
this one of the earliest and best of all 
productive sorts. A seedling of the 
Beauty of Hebron, which it resembles ; 
but is much earlier; quality is unsur- 
passed. 

Price, per h peck, 40c. ; per peck 75c. ; 
per bush., m.OO; per bbl. $5.00. 

£arly Sunrise Potato. This va- 
riety is of recent introduction ; it is very 
early and fairly productive. The tubers 
are large, oblong, solid, uniform and 
handsome ; flesh white, fine grained and 



dry. They are fit for the table when 
dug quite young, as they are extremely 
early. 

Price, per peck, 50c. ; per bush.. Si. .50; 
per bbl. S4.00. 




n<c i'Otato. 



The Utiki»o\t'» Pea. This is a 
new Pea belonging to the Sontlwrn Con: 
Pea class. It is of a greenish white 
color and of a strong vigorous growth. 
The pods are long and full, and continue 
in bearing for some time. 

Price, per peck. 75c. ; per bush., $2.09: 
by mail, i)ostage paid, 15c. per lb. 



EXTRA CLEANED BIRD SEED, 

I make a specialty to put up choice re-cleaned bird seed in cartoons holding 
one pound. These cartoons contain a mixture oi 

SICILY CANARY, HEMP, GERMAFM RAPE, 
AND GERMAN MILLET, 

all re-cleaned and of best quality. 

Have also plain Canary put up in same way, one pound cartoons ; this is of the 
very best quality and also re-cleaned. Price, 10c. per cartoon ; 3 cartoons, 2oc. 

Have also in bulk, the above as well as Hemj), Rape and Millet. 

Cuttle Fish Bone. 5c. a piece : 50c. a pound. 



T E ST I Is/I O I<r I A. XjS 



Alpha, La., Nov. 24, 1889. 
Our garden was splendid this past 
summer due to the fine seed you sent 
us ; in future will use no other, but yours. 
Mrs. R. W. SEAG. 



HouMA, La.. April 16th, 1889. 
Your seeds are doincr stdendid ; I have 
never failed to get your seeds to germi- 
nate. J. C. RAGAN. 

Ramsey, La.. February 15, 1889. 
Have been planting your seeds for 
several years, and have found them 
superior to those from Northern houses, 
especially with Melons, 

J. N. WILLIAMS. 



Jhv/ELTOX Plant., La., June 18, 1889. 
I cut a cabbage on the 15th inst. which 
weighed 19i lbs. ; it was raised from seed 
of your Superior Flat Dutch Cabbage. 
We had a six weeks' drouth, which I 
calculated diminished its weight about 
ten pounds. I am very well satisfied 
with your seed, and have recommended 
them to all my neighbors. 

B. B. EWELL. 

Calvert St'n, Ala., January 17, 1889. 
Have always found your seeds to be as 
represented. The Wardwell's Kidney 
Wax Beans I got from you last season, 
I liked bett'M^ than any other bunch bean 
I ever tried before. 

Mrs. Dr. W. T. WEBB. 



FOR tKE SOUTHERN STATES. 



153 



PLANTER'S & GARDENER'S PRICE-LIST. 



COST OF MAILING SEED. 

Orders for ounces and ten cent papers are mailed free of postac^e, except 
Beans Pean and Com See page 4 in regard to seeds b}^ mail. On orders 
by tlie pound and quart nn advance of eight cents per pound and fifteen 
cents per qnart must be added to quotations for postage. 



SPECIAL DISCOUNT. 

On all orders, amounting to % 5-00 and over, 10% discount. 

20.00 " 15 

For larger quantities, special prices will be given on application 
The above discount is on all seeds except Potatoes^ Out 
Shallots, Grass and Field Seeds, v/hich are net cash. 



on Sets, 



VARIETIES. 



ARTICHOKE. 

Large Green Globe (Loan) 
Early Campania 



ASPARAOUS, 

Conover's Colossal 



Eoots 3 years old 



BEANS— Dwarf, Snap or Busli, 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 

Dwarf German Wax, (stringlessj 

Dwarf Golden Wax 

Wardwell's Dwarf Kidney Wax . . . . 
Dwarf Flageolet or Perfection Wax. . 

White Kidney 

Early China Red Eye 

Red Kidney 

Best of All 

Improved Valentine . 

Pride of Newton, in 10c. papers only. 

BEA]V$-Polc orRuBinifig^, 



Large Lima . . 

Carolina or Sewee 

Southern Willow-Leaved Sewee or Butter. . . 

Horticidtural or Wren's Egg 

Dutch Case Knife .... 

German Wax ( stringless) , 

Southern Prolitlc 

Crease Back 

Lazy Wife's 

Golden Wax Flageolet 

New Golden ilndalusia Wax, in 10c. papers onb 

BEANS-Engiisti. 

Broad Windsor 



PRICES. 



Per onrjce. I Per Jib. 

$0 50 
40 



10 
Per 100 
'$0 75~" 



Per 

$0 



quart. 

20 

20 

25 

25 

25 

40 

20 

20 

20 

25 

20 



40 
40 
50 
30 
30 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 



n 75 


1 50 


20 


Per 1000 


$0 00 


Per peck. 


$1 25 


1 25 


1 25 


1 50 


1 50 


2 50 


1 25 


1 25 


1 25 


1 50 


1 25 


2 50 


2 50 


2 50 


2 00 


2 00 


1 2 25 


i 2 25 


1 2 25 


; 2 50 


; 3 00 

1 


1 

1 1 50 



Per lb. 

.^6 00 
5 00 



50 



iPer bushel 

I $4 50 

4 50 
' 5 50 

6 00 

6 00 

8 00 

4 50 

4 50 

4 50 

5 50 
4 50 



9 00 



00 



Prices for larger quantities given on application. 



154 



RICHARD FROTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



VARIETIES. 



BEET. 
Extra Early or Bassano . . . 
Simon's Early Eed Turnip. 

Early Blood Turnip 

Long Blood 

Half Long Blood 

Egyptian Eed Turnip . . 

Eclipse 

Lentz 

Long Eed Mangel Wurzel 

White French or Sugar 

Silver or Swiss Chard 



BORECOL.E OF CUKEED KALE. 
Dwarf German Greens 



BROCCOEI. Purple Cape, 
BRUSSEES SPROUTS.. 



CABBAGE. 

Early York 

Early Large York 

Early Sugar Loaf 

Early Large Oxheart . 

Early Winningstadt 

Jersey Wakefield 

Early Flat Dutch 

Early Drumhead 

Large Flat Brunswick 

Improved Large Late Drumhead 
Superior Large Late Flat Dutch 

Improved Early Summer 

Eed Dutch (for pickling) 

Green Globe Savoy 

Early Dwarf Savoy 

Drumhead Savoy 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil 

CAULIFEOlfVEB. 

Extra Early Paris 

Half Early Paris 

Early Erfurt 

LeNormand's Short Stemmed 

Early Italian Giant 

Late Italian Giant 

Imperial 

Algiers (fine) 



CARROTS. 

Early Scarlet Horn 

Half Long Scarlet French 

Half Long Luc 

Imi^roved Long Orange 
Long Eed, without core . . 

St. Valerie 

Danver's Intermediate . . 



CEEERY. 

Large White Solid (finest American) 
Perfection Heartwell, (very fine) . .. 

Large Eibbed Dwarf 

Turnip-Eooted 

Cutting or Soup . 

CHEBVIE. 

Plain leaved 

COEEARDS 

CORW SAEAD . • 



PRICES. 


Per ounce. 


Per 1 lb. 


Per lb. 


$0 10 


$0 20 


$0 50 


10 


20 


50 


10 


20 


50 


10 


15 


40 


10 


20 


50 


10 


20 


50 


10 


25 


75 


10 


25 


75 


10 


15 


40 


10 


15 


40 


10 


25 


75 


15 


40 


1 00 


30 


1 00 


4 00 


25 


75 


3 00 


25 


■ GO- 


2 00 ■ 


25 


GO 


2 00 


25 


75 


2 50 


25 


75 


2 50 


25 


75 


2 .50 


30 


1 00 


4 00 


25 


75 


2 50 


25 


75 


2 50 


25 


1 00 


3 00 


25 


1 00 


3 00 


25 


1 00 


3 00 


25 


1 00 


3 00 


25 


1 00 


3 00 


25 


60 


2 00 


25 


GO 


2 00 


25 


75 


2 50 


25 


75 


3 00 


75 


2 50 


10 00 


75 


2 50 


10 00 


75 


2 50 


10 00 


1 00 


3 00 


10 00 


1 00 


3 00 


12 00 


1 00 


3 00 


12 00 


1 00 


3 00 


12 00 


1 00 


3 00 


12 00 


10 


35 


1 00 


10 


25 


80 


10 


30 


1 00 


10 


25 


80 


10 


30 


1 00 


10 


30 


1 00 


10 


25 


80 


25 


75 


2 50 


40 


1 25 


5 00 


25 


75 


2 50 


30 


1 00 


4 00 


15 


50 


1 50 


15 


50 


1 50 


15 


50 


1 50 


15 


50 


1 50 



FOR THE SOUTHEllN STATES. 



155 



VARIETIES. 



CORN. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar 

Adam's Extra Early 

Earlj^ Sugar or Sweet 

Sto well's Evergreen Sugar 

Golden Beauty 

Champion White Pearl 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed ""^ 

Early Yellow Canada "i^ 

Large White Flint ^ 

Blunt's Prolific, Field d ' 

Improved Learning § 

Mosbv's Prolific Z^ 

Hickory King, (White) c^^ 

N. B.- Prices for larger quantities given on application. 

CRESS. 

Curle<i or Pepper Grass 

Broad-leaved (grey seeded) 



6 tc 



CUCUMBER. 

Improved Early White Spine 

Long Green White Spine or New Orleans Market 

Early Frame 

Long Green Turkey 

Early Cluster 

Gherkin, or Burr (for pickling) 



EOGPI.AWT. 

Large Purple, or New Orleans Market , 
Early Dwarf Oval 



E]\DIVE. 

Green Curled 

Extra Fine Curled 

Broad-leaved, or Escarolle 

KOHJLRABI. 

Early White Vienna 

f.EEK. 

Large London Flag, American grown. . , 
Large Carentan " *' 

EETTUCE. 

Early Cabbage or White Butter 

Improved Royal Cabbage 

Brown Dutch 

Drumhead Cabbage 

White Paris Coss. . . 

Perpignan 

N. O. Imi^roved Large Passion 

MEI^ON, inUSK or CAIVTELOUPE. 

Netted Nutmeg 

Netted Citron 

Pine Apple ... . 

Early White Japan 

Persian or Cassaba 

New Orleans Market (true) 

Osage 

]TIEL.O]%, W^ATER. 

Mountain Sweet 

Mountain Sprout 

Ice Cream (White Seeded) 

Orange 

Dark Icing . 

t Rattlesnake (true) - 



So- 

-5 a 

OX 



PRICES. 



Per qnart. 
$0 25 
20 
20 
20 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
20 



Per ounce. 
$0 10 
15 

10 
■15 
10 
10 
10 
20 

40 
30 

20 
20 
20 



20 
30 



20 
20 
20 
15 
20 
20 
20 



Per peck. 

$1 25 



00 
25 
25 
00 
00 
00 
75 
75 
00 
00 
.75 
00 



Per 

$0 



All 

35 
60 

25 
GO 
25 
30 
25 
75 

1 50 
1 25 

75 
75 
75 



75 

65 
1 00 



60 
75 

75 
50 

75 

75 



25 
25 
35 
50 
30 
30 



Per bushel 

U 00 



156 



RiCflARD FROTSCHER'S almanac Ai?D &ARJ)EN MaNUAL 



VARIETIES. 



e.2 



iTIELOWf, WATER.— Continued. 

g- >. \ Cuban Queen . . 

II Pride of Georgia 

^'^ I Mammoth Iron-Clad 

\ KolbGem. 

I Florida's Favorite 

I OenUer's Triumph. 

''^'- J' t Seminole 

MUSTARD. 

Large Curled 

Chinese Large Leaved 

White or Yellow Seeded 

NASTURTIUIfl. 

Tall ... 

Dwarf 

OKRA. 

G^een Tall Growing 

Dwarf Green 

White Velvet 



ONIO]^. 

Large .Red Wethersfield 

White or Silver Skin . . . 

Creole 

ITALIAN ONIOJV. 

New Queen .... , . . . 

Bermuda (true) 

ONION SETS. 

White 

Red or Yellow. . 

SMAI.EOTS . . , 



PARSEEY. 

Plain Leaved 

Double Curled 

Improved Garnishing .... . . 

PARSNIP. 

Hollow Crown, or Sugar 

PEAS. 

Extra Early, (First and Best) .. 

Alaska 

Tom Thumb 

Early Washington ; . 

Laxton's Alpha 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod 

Champion of England 

Carter's Stratagem 

Carter's Telephone 

McLean's Advancer 

McLean's Little Gem 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 

Eugenie ' 

Dwarf Blue Imperial , 

Royal Dwarf Marrow . 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat 

Large White Marrowfat 

Dwarf Sugar 

Tall Sugar 

American Wonder 

Field or Cow Peas Market Price. 

PEPPER. 

Bell or Bull Nose 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 

Long Red Cayenne 

Red Cherry 



^ -i 
6 



PRICES. 



Per 
$0 



ounce 

10 

15 

10 

15 

15 

40 

15 

10 
10 
03 

20 
'2r, 



10 
10 
10 

20 
30 



Per i lb. 

$0 30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
1 50 
40 

25 
25 
15 

50 

75 

20 
20 
25 

75 
1 00 



25 

20 



Per 



qnurt 

20 

20 



Per (VI nee, 
10 
10 
15 

10 
Per quart. 
$0 25 

30 
. 25 

20 

25 

20 

25 

40 

40 

25 

25 

25 

25 

20 

20 

15 

20 

30 

30 

30 

Per nnnce 
30 
40 
30 
40 



60 
Per peck. 

Market Price. 



Per i lb. 

25 



Per lb. 

$1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
50 

75 

75 
40 



2 00 

8 00 

50 
60 



2 50 

2 00 

Pc-r busiie.) 



25 


35 


25 


Per peek. 


$1 25 


1 25 


1 25 


1 00 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


2 25 


2 25 


1 75 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 25 


Per k lb. 


1 00 


1 25 


1 00 


1 25 



Perib. 

75 

80 

1 25 

75 
Per bnshel 
$5 00 
5 00 

5 00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

7 00 

6 00 
5 00 

5 00 

6 00 
5 00 
3 50 
3 50 
3 50 

8 00 
8 00 

7 00 

Per lb. 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 • 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



157 



VARIETIES. 



PEPPER.— Continued. 
Golden Dawn Mango. . . 

Bird Eye 

Tabasco 

Chili 

Ruby King 

Red Cluster 



POTATOES. 



f Russets 

, Burbank Seedling 

I Peerless 

J Early Rose 

I Extra Early Vermont 
I Early Beauty of Hebron 

I White Elephant 

[Rural Blush 



POTATOES, SWEET. 

Spanish Yam 

Shanghai, or California Yam 

Prices vary according to market, 
given on application. 

PUMPKIN. 

Kentucky Field 



Quotations 



Large Cheese . 

Cashaw Crook-Neck (green striped) southern grown 
Golden Yellow Mammoth 

RADISH. 

Early Long Scarlet . 

Early Scarlet Turnip 

Yellow Summer Turnip 

Early Scarlet Olive-Shaped 

White Summer Turnip 

Scarlet Half Long French 

Scarlet Olive-Shaped, or French Breakfast . . 

Black Spanish (Winter) ... 

Chinese Rose (Winter) . 

Chartier .... 

White Strassburg 

California Mammoth 

ROQUETTE 

SALSIFY, American 

Sandwich Island (Mammoth) 

SORREL., (Broad-leaved 

SPINACH. 

Extra Large-leaved Savoy 



PRICES. 



Per ounce. 
$0 30 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

Per bushel 

$1 00 



25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 



Broad-leaved Flanders 

SOUASH. 

Early Bush, or Patty Pan 

Long Green, or Summer Crook-Neck. 

London Vegetable Marrow 

The Hubbard.. 

Boston Marrow 



TOMATO. 

King of the Earlies 

Extra Early Dwarf Red 
Early Large Smooth Red . 

Trophy, (selected) 

Large Yellow 

Acme 



Per quart. 
.*0 25 
Per ounce. 
$0 10 
10 
15 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
15 
15 
10 
10 

15 
20 
25 
15 



40 
25 
20 
40 
30 
25 



Per 4 lb. 
$1 00 
1 50 
1 50 
1 50 
1 25 
1 50 

.^«r barrel. 

$2 50 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 50 
3 50 



Per pecL 

$1 50 
Per k lb 

$0 20 
25 
50 



20 
20 
25 
20 
20 
20 
20 
25 
35 
35 
30 
30 

75 
60 
75 
50 

20 
20 

25 
25 

50 
50 
50 



25 
75 
65 
25 
00 
75 



P^r lb. 

$3 00 



4 00 



Per bushel 

$5 00 

Per lb. 

f 60 

75 

1 50 



50 

60 

SO 

60 

60 

60 

60 

80 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 50 
1 50 



50 
50 



75 

1 00 
1 50 
1 25 
1 50 



4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 50 



158 



RICHARD FROTSCHER S ALMANAC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



VARIETIES. 



TOM 4 TO.— Continued. 

Paragon 

Livingston's Perfection 

Livingston's Favorite 

Livingston's Beauty 

TURIVIP. 

Early Eed or Purple Top (strap-leavedj 
Early White Flat Dutch (strap-leavedj 

Large White Globe =. 

White Spring 

Yellow Aberdeen . 

Golden Jiall 

Improved Purple Top Rata Baga 

Munich Early Purple Top 

Purple Top Globe 

White Egg 



SWEET AND MEDICIIVAE HERBS. 



Anise 

Balm 

Basil 

Bene 

Borage 

Caraway 

Dill . -. 

Fennel 

Lavender — . 

Marjoram 

Pot Marigold . . , 
Eosemary . . . 

Rue . . . . 

Sage 

Suni?2ier Savory 
Thyme .... 
Wormwood 



Per lb. 
.^0 15 
25 
20 
20 
30 
1 50 
15 
10 
10 
25 
15 
20 
20 
20 
10 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



Per I bn. 



3 00 



CIRASS A]VI> FIELD SEEDS. 

Eed Clover (Extra Cleaned . . . 

White Dutch Clover 

Alsike Clover 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne 

Lespedeza or Japan Clover 

Bermuda Grass 

Kentucky Blue Grass. (Extra Cleaned) 

Eed Top Grass 

English Eye Grass . 

Eescue Grass ... 

Johnson Grass. (Extra Cleaned) 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass 

Meadow Fescue Grass 

Orchard Grass 

Timothy 

Hungarian Grass 

German Millet 

Eye :.:::::; 

Barley 

Eed or Rust Proof Oats 

Sorghum 

Broom Corn — 

Dhouro or Egyptian Corn [ 

Buckwheat 

Russian Sunflower 

Winter Vetch, (Vicia Sativa) . . 

Burr or California Clover (measured) per quart, lOo, ; per bushel, $2.50, 

J^T. B. —Prices for larger quantities giv^ii on application. 



PRICKS. 



Per ounce. 
SO 25 

25 

25 

30 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

Per pack. 
$0 10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



P.'r i 11). 

$0 75 

75 

1 00 

1 25 



20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



Market Price. 



Per lb. 
$2 50 

2 50 

3 00 

4 00 



50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
GO 
50 
60 
50 
50 



Per bushel 


S6 00 


12 00 


10 00 


10 00 


6 00 


1 50 


1 25 


1 50 


3 00 


2 50 


2 25 


2 50 


1 75 


2 50 



2 00 



4 00 



FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



159 



The following extracts are taken from a few of the many complimentary letters 
received during the ensuing year. This is to convince the public, who have had no 
dealings with my house yet, that 

FROTSCHER'S SEEDS ARE THE BEST FOR THE SOUTH, 

and have always given the utmost satisfaction. 

It is a gratification for me to receive letters from my patrons, expressing their 
satisfaction, as it is my constant endeavor to please them. 

Mississippi, January 19, 1889. 
I have had some fifteen years ex- 
perience in gardening, and in that time 
I have never planted any seed which has 
given me as much satisfaction as the 
seed I got from you. B. H. WADE. 

Mississippi, January 24, 1889. 
The Boston Peerless Potatoes that I 
got from you did very well, considering 
the late and dry season. From three 
bbls. planted I shipped seveniy-aix bbls., 
and kept 22 bushels for home use. 

J. O. HAMMETT. 



Mississippi, December 9, 1889. 
Having used your garden seeds in my 
market garden here, almost exclusively 
for the past four years, I deem it my 
duty to bear testimony to thei; always 
being true to name, fresh, sound and 
reliable, and recommend them for use 
of Market Gardeners of the south. I 
consider your Almanac and Catalogue 
of as much value to Truck Growers as 
any work on Gardening for the South 
not excepting O - of Savannah, Ga. 
F. A. WOLFE. 



Texas, February 18, 1889. 
Your seeds have always given satis- 
faction. THOS. McCANAHAN, 



Louisiana, February 9, 1889. 
I have planted your seeds for several 
years, and have alw^ays found them to 
be what they were claimed for. 

R. R. HOGAN. 



Louisiana, February 13, 1889. 
I succeeded splendidly with your seeds 
last Spring. 

CAPT. G. C. MARSHALL. 



Florida, January 28, 1889. 
I am a friend of your seeds, and have 
always recommended them as being best 
for this latitude. J. E. BORENS. 



Louisiana, January 18, 1889. 
The Peas that I got from you last fall 
are growing finely ; am well pleased with 
them. Miss L. I^OTSPEJCH. 



Louisiana, January 27, 1889. 
I have been using your seeds for several 
years, and have always succeeded very 
well with them. 

Mrs. CORNELIA LEVERT. 



Mississippi, January 29, 1889. 
I have been using your seeds for the 
last sixteen years, and have always been 
satisfied with the results. 

L. G. MANUEL. 



Mississippi, January 19, 1889. 
I have found your seeds to be excellent 
and reliable. 

Mrs. H. R. C. BENWELL. 

Georgia, January 22, 1889. 
I am so well pleased with my trade 
with you, that I give you full discretion 
as to varieties and quantities. 

T. B. BROOKS. 



Louisiana, February 4, 1889. 
I have always found your seeds the 
most reliable. 

Mrs. C. G. BEAUMONT. 



Louisiana, February 26, 1889. 
The seeds which I get from you have 
always proven more satisfactory than 
those obtained from any other source. 
T. J. FORD. 



Louisiana, May 16, 1889. 
I have never failed making a crop with 
your seeds, Q. B. CHEVAL, 



160 



RICHARD FEOTSCHER S ALMANiC AND GARDEN MANUAL 



Mississippi, December li, 1889. 
Have been usin^ your seeds for the 
past three years, aod have always found 
them to be as represented, 

JAKE WESLEY. 



Louisiana, December 17, 1889. 
Notwithstanding tlie extrtx ordinary 
drouth, the Frotscher's Superior Flat 
Dutch and German Brunswick Cabbage 
have done splendidly, all well headed at 
present. F. F. STEPHENS. 

Texas, August 10, 1889. 
All seeds that I have had from you 
have given entire satisfaction. 

C. T. WESCOTT. 



Mississippi, October 15, 1889. 
I have been using your seeds for the 
past six years, and have always met with 
success. The Purple Top Turnip did 
exceptionally well this season. 

LEOPOLD DORN. 



Florida, August 1, 1889. 
We were very much pleased with the 
flower seeds which we got from you last 
fall. TROY & JACKSON. 

Louisiana, August 2, 1889. 
The seeds I received from you this 
spring came up beautifully. I raised as 
fine Cucumbers, Squash, Tomatoes and 
Bush Beans as any in town. 

EDWIN H. LEET. 

Louisiana, September 10, 1889. 
The seeds v/hich I have bought from 
you, have invariably proven satisfactory. 

C. S. KAY. 



Louisiana, September 26, 1889. 
While working on the Star Plantation, 
I had my seeds from you and they have 
always given satisfaction. 

L. PERRIN. 

Arkansas, August 12, 1889. 
The Cabbage seed you sent me in the 
spring, the Early Summer and other 
varieties were just splendid; they all 
headed beautifully. 

Mrs. M. E. DICKSON. 



Florida, August 5, 1889, 
The Creole Onion seed bought of you 
last fall gave entire satisfaction, they 
made large fine bulbs. 

D. T. KENNERLY. 

Louisiana, August 19, 1889. 
Of the seeds I got from you last spring, 
I do not believe that one refused to oome 
up out of the ground, and a nicer lot of 
vegetables I never saw. 

Mrs. M. J. COLEMAN. 



Mississippi, September 2, 1889. 
Last spring I got some seeds of the 
Seminole Water Melon from you; I must 
say that I found it to be an exceedingly 
fine melon, a very good bearer, of large 
size, thin rind, flesh crisp, very solid and 
sweet. I think it is one of the best 
melons for private garden. 

C. FORKERT. 



Texas, October 6, 1889. 
The seeds bought of you for my spring 
and summer garden, gave the greatest 
satisfaction. JAMES GREEN. 



Alabama, September 12, 1889. 
Have always found your seeds the 
most reliable and true to name. 

J. C. WILSON. 



Georgia, July 25, 1889. 
Your seeds have given better satisfac- 
tion than any I have heretofore planted. 
T. C. YOUNG. 



Alabama, May 6, 1889. , 
Frotscher's Superior Large Late Flat 
Dutch Cabbage seed which I got last 
summer, did splendidly ; very large and 
well headed, they averaged from 10 to 
18 lbs. W. B. SIMMONS. 

Florida, June 13, 1889. 
I have the finest lot of Tomatoes, Egg- 
plants, Melons and other vegetables 
from your seeds. I must say, that I have 
never had such success in gardening 
before, until I commenced using your 
seeds. J. B. FRIESSE. 



r 



INDEX 



PAGE. 

Almanac 7 to 18 

Apricot Plum 145 

Artichoke 23 

Asparagus 23 

Bartlett Pear 141 

Beans, (Bush) 24 

Beans. (Pole) 24 

Beans, (Dwarf, Snap or Bush,) 24 to 27 

Beans, (Pole or liunning,) 27 to 30 

Beans, English 30 

Beets 30 to 32 

Bird Seed 152 

Borecole or Kale 32 

Broccoli 32 

Brussels Sprouts 33 

Bulbous Roots.. 121 to 125 

Cabbage 33 to 37 

Cauliflower 37 to 39 

Carrot 39 and 40 

Celery 41 and 42 

Chervil 42 

Clapp's Favorite Pear 142 

Climbing Plants 118 to 121 

Collards 42 

Corn Salad 42 

Corn, Indian 42 to 46 

Corn and Seed Planter 126 

Cress 46 

Cucumber 46 to 49 

Directions for Planting 95 to 100 

Duchess D'Angouleme Pear 141 

Eggplant 49 and 50 

Endive 50 

Fig, Celeste or Celestial 147 

'• New White Adriatic 147 

Flower Seeds 101 lo 117 

Garden Implements 127 and 128 

Garlic 50 

Grape Vines 145 

Grass and Field Seeds 83 to 94 

Herb Seeds 83 

Hot Bed ; ; ... 20 

Howell Pear 142 

Japan Lilies 123 to 125 

Japan Persimmon 146 

Jefferson Pear ] 142 

Jerusalem Artichoke 136 

Kaffir Corn 137 

Kelsey's Japan Plum 144 

Kieffer's Hybrid Pear . .140 

Kohlrabi 51 

Le Conte Pear 139 



(,1 

PAGE. ''* 

Leek 51 

Letter on "Alfalfa" 134 to 136 

Lettuce 51 to 53 ^" 

Marianna Plum 143 

Matthews' Hand Cultivat(u- 126 /< 

Melon, Musk 53 and 54 

Melon, Water 54 to 58 

Mustard 58 

Nasturtium 59 

New York Seed Drill 125 

Novelties 149 to 152 

Ogan and Botan Plums 144 

Okra 59 

Onion 60 and 61 

Parsley 61 and 62 

Parsnip 62 

Peach Trees 145 

Peen-To or Flat Peach of China . . . .145 

Peas 62 to 65 

Pecans, Louisiana Soft Shell 148 

Pepper 65 io 67 

Pomegranate, "Spanish Ruby". . . ..147 

Potatoes 67 to 70 

Pumpkin 71 

Price-List, Planters and Gardeners' 

153 to 159 
Price-List Garden Implements 129 to 134 

Radish... .... 72 and 73 

Remarks on Raising Vegetables for 

Shipping 5 and 6 

Roquette 73 

Salsify 73 and 74 

Ratsuma or Blood Plum 144 

Seeds by Mail 4 

Shallots 61 

Sorghum 136 to 138 

Sorrel 74 

Sowing Seeds 21 

Spinach • • • 74 

Squash 74 and 75 

Sucker State Strawberry .... 147 and 148 

Teosinte 137 

Testimonial 152, 159 and 160 

Tobacco Seed 83 

Tomato 75 to 79 

Trees, how to plant, etc 138 

Turnip 79 to 82 

Table showing Quantity of Seed re- 
quired to the Acre 22 

Vegetable Garden 19 

Wild Goose Plum 142 



15 &i'^^ New Orleans.La. <^ V^ 

R0.DRAWER451 




EED rOTATOES 






Specialty.